您所在的位置:主页 > 四六级英语 > 阅读 >


2012-02-23 15:50

Section I   Use of English


Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

     All Sumerian cities recognized a number of gods in common, including the sky god, the lord of storms, and the morning and evening star.      the Sumerian worshipped the goddess of fertility, love, and war, she was evidently lower   2 status than the male gods, indicating that in a more urbanized society the    that the peoples of previous times had paid to the earth mother goddess had    . The gods seemed hopelessly violent and    , and one's life a period of slavery at their easy will. The epic poem The Creation emphasizes that    were created to enable the gods to    up working. Each city moreover had its own god, who was considered to    the temple literally and who was in theory the owner of all property within the city.    the priests who interpreted the will of the god and controlled the   10  of the economic produce of the city were favored   11    their supernatural and material functions  12   . When, after 3000 B. C., growing warfare among the cities made military leadership  13   , the head of the army who became king assumed a(n)   14   position between the god, whose agent he was, and the priestly class, whom he had both to use and to   15   Thus king and priests represented the upper class in a hierarchical society.  16   them were the scribes, the secular attendants of the temple, who    17    every aspect of the city's economic life and who developed a rough judicial system.    18   the temple officials, society was divided among an elite or   19   group of large landowners and military leaders; a mixed group of merchants, artisans, and craftsmen, free peasants who   20   the majority of the population; and slaves.

1. [A] Unless        [BI As        [C] Lest        [D] Although 

2. [A] on            [B] in         [C] with       [D] about

3. [A] worship       [B] reverence    [C] admiration  [D] gratitude

4. [A] vanished      [B] recovered    [C] declined    [D] attained

5. [A]unpredictable   [B] unforgivable  [C] unlimited   [D] unlikely

6. [A] creatures      [BI animals       [C] men       [D] mortals

7. [A] use            [BI turn        [C] give       [D] back

8. [A] inhabit         [B] live         [C] reside     [D] lodge

9. [A] Hence         [B] Thereafter    [C] Somehow  [D] Incidentally

10.[A]introduction    [B]transaction     [C] distribution [D] provision

11. [A] as           [B] for           [C] under     [D] of

12. [A] along        [B] anyway       [C] afterwards [D] alike

13. [A]additional     [B]vital          [C] singular    [D] exceptional

14.[A]alternative     [B]secondary      [C]intermediate [D]fundamental

15.[A]pacify        [B]tempt          [C]suppress    [D] manipulate

16.[A]Beside        [B]Beyond        [C] Below       [D] Before

17.[A]supervised     [B] held          [C] managed     [D] preside

18.[A]Around        [B] Under        [C] Above       [D] Outside

19.[A]leading        [B] noble         [C] controlling   [D] principal

20.[A]consist         [B] compose       [C] compile      [D] consume



Section Ⅱ    Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.  (40 points ) 


Text 1

     Over the last decade, demand for the most common cosmetic surgery procedures, like breast enlargements and nose jobs, has increased by more than 400 percent. According to Dr. Dai Davies, of the Plastic Surgery Parmer ship in Hammersmith, the majority of cosmetic surgery patients are not chasing physical perfection. Rather, they are driven to fantastic lengths to improve their appearance by a desire to look normal. "What we all crave is to look normal, and normal is what is prescribed by the advertising media and other external pressures. They give us look like that.

    In America, the debate is no longer about whether surgery is normal; rather, it centers on what age people should be before going under the knife. New York surgeon Dr. Gerard Imber

recommends "maintenance" work for people in their thirties. "The idea of waiting until one needs a heroic transformation is silly," he says. "By then, you've wasted 20 great years of your life and allowed things to get out of hand." Dr. Imber draws the lino at operating on people who are under 18, however, "It seems that someone we don't consider old enough to order a drink shouldn't be considering plastic surgery."

    In the UK cosmetic surgery has long been seen as the exclusive domain of the very rich and famous. But the proportionate cost of treatment has fallen substantially, bringing all but the most

advanced laser technology within the reach of most people. Dr. Davies, who claims to "cater for the average person", agrees. He says: "I treat a few of the rich and famous and an awful lot of

secretaries. Of course, £3, 000 for an operation is a lot of money. But it is also an investment for life which costs about half the price of a good family holiday."

    Dr. Davies suspects that the increasing sophistication of the fat injecting and removal techniques that allow patients to be treated with a local anesthetic in an afternoon has also helped promote the popularity of cosmetic surgery. Yet, as one women who recently paid £2,500for liposuction to remove fat from her thighs admitted, the slope to becoming a cosmetic surgery Veteran is a deceptively gentle one. "I had my legs done because they'd been bugging me for years. But going into the clinic was so low key and effective it whetted my appetite. Now I don't think there's any operation that I would   rule out having if I could afford it."


21. According to the text, the reason for cosmetic surgery is to

    [A] be physically healthy.

    [B] look more normal.

    [C] satisfy appetite.

    [D] be accepted by media.

22. According to the third paragraph, Dr. Davies implies that

   [A] cosmetic surgery, though costly, is worth having.

   [B] cosmetic surgery is too expensive.

   [C] cosmetic surgery is necessary even for the average person.

   [D] cosmetic surgery is mainly for the rich and famous.

23. The statement "draws the line at operating on people" (para. 2) is closest in meaning to

   [A] removing wrinkles from the face.

   [B] helping people make up.

   [C] enjoying operating.

 [D] refusing to operate.

24. It can be inferred from the text that

   [A] it is wise to have cosmetic surgery under 18.

 [B] cosmetic surgery is now much easier.

 [C] people tend to abuse cosmetic surgery.

 [D] the earlier people have cosmetic surgery, the better they will be.

25. The text is mainly about

   [A] the advantage of having cosmetic surgery.

   [B] what kind of people should have cosmetic surgery.

   [C] the reason why cosmetic surgery is so popular.

[D] the disadvantage of having cosmetic surgery.


Passage 2

     At the start of the year, The Independent on Sunday argued that there were three over-whelming reasons why Iraq should not be invaded: there was no proof that Saddam posed an imminent threat; Iraq would be even more unstable as a result of its liberation; and a conflict would increase the threat posed by terrorists. What we did not know was that Tony Blair had received intelligence and advice that raised the very same points.

    Last week's report from the Intelligence and Security Committee included the revelation that some of the intelligence had warned that a war against Iraq risked an increased threat of terrorism. Why did Mr. Blair not make this evidence available to the public in the way that so much of the alarmist intelligence on Saddam's weapons was published? Why did he choose to ignore the intelligence and argue instead that the war was necessary, precisely because of the threat posed by international terrorism?

   There have been two parliamentary investigations into this war and the Hutton inquiry reopens tomorrow. In their different ways they have been illuminating, but none of them has addressed the main issues relating to the war. The Foreign Affairs Committee had the scope to range widely, but chose to become entangled in the dispute between the Government and the BBC. The Intelligence Committee reached the conclusion that the Government's file on Saddam's weapons was not mixed up, but failed to explain why the intelligence was so hopelessly wrong. The Hutton inquiry is investigating the death of Dr. David Kelly, a personal tragedy of marginal relevance to the war against Iraq.


    Tony Blair has still to come under close examination about his conduct in the building-up to war. Instead, the Defence Secretary, Geoff Hoon, is being fingered as if he were master-minding the war behind everyone's backs from the Ministry of Defence. Mr. Hoon is not a minister who dares to think without consulting Downing Street first. At all times he would have been dancing to Downing Street's tunes, Mr. Blair would be wrong to assume that he can draw a line under all of this by making Mr. Hoon the fall-guy. It was Mr. Blair who decided to take Britain to war, and a Cabinet of largely skeptical ministers that backed him. It was Mr. Blair who told MPs that unless Saddam was removed, terrorists would pose a greater global threat---even though he had received intelligence that suggested a war would lead to an increase in terrorism.

Parliament should be the forum in which the Prime Minister is called more fully to account, but lain Duncan Smith's support for the war has neutered an already inept opposition. In the absence of proper parliamentary scrutiny, it is left to newspapers like this one to keep asking the most important questions until the Prime Minister answers them.


26. We learn from the first two paragraphs that 

   [A] the evidence should have been made available to the Parliament.

[B] the necessity of war has been exaggerated by the Committee.

[C] Blair had purposely ignored some of the intelligence he received.

[D] it was The Independent that first revealed the intelligence.

27. The author thinks that the Hutton enquiry is

   [A] also beside the mark.

   [B] hopelessly wrong.

   [C] illuminating in its way.

   [D] wide in scope.

28. By "chose to become entangled" (Paragraph 3), the author implies that

       [A] the dispute between the Government and the BBC was unnecessary.

   [B] the Foreign Affairs Committee had mixed up the argument.

   [C] it was entirely wrong to carry out such investigations.

   [D] the Intelligence Committee shouldn't mix up with the affair.

29. It can be learned from Paragraph 4 that

   [A] most ministers were suspicious of Hoon's conduct.

   [B] Hoon will not do anything without consulting Blain

   [C] Blair should not divert his responsibility to his Cabinet.

   [D] MPs think that it is Blair who drags the country into the war.

30. What is the author's attitude towards the Parliament?

   [A] Indignant.

   [B] Skeptical.

   [C] Inquisitive.

   [D] Critical.



Text 3


When Rupert Murdoch sees beams of light in the American advertising market, it is not necessarily time to reach for the sunglasses. Last October, when the impact of September 11th was only beginning to tell, the boss of NewsCorp, a media group, had already identified “strong rays of sunshine”. With ad sales still languishing, Mr Murdoch declared last month that “there are some hints of a modest upswing in the US advertising markets.” His early optimism turned out to be misplaced. Now, however, other industry observers are beginning to agree with him.

Advertising usually exaggerates the economic cycle: falling sharply and early in a downturn, and rebounding strongly once the economy has begun to recover. This is because most managers prefer to trim their ad budgets rather than their payrolls, and restore such spending only once they feel sure that things are looking up. Last year, America’s ad market shrank by 9.8%, according to CMR, a research firm. Although ad spending has not yet recovered across all media, some analysts now expect overall ad spending to start to grow in the third quarter.

The signs of improvement are patchy, however. Ad spending on radio and television seems to be inching up—advertising on American national radio was up 2% in January on the same period last year, according to Aegis—while spending on magazines and newspapers is still weak. Even within any one market, there are huge differences; just pick up a copy of one of the now-slimline high-tech magazines that once bulged with ads, and compare it with the hefty celebrity or women’s titles. Advertisers in some categories, such as the travel industry, are still reluctant to buy space or airtime, while others, such as the car and movie businesses, have been bolder. The winter Olympics, held last month in Salt Lake City, has also distorted the spending on broadcast advertising in the first quarter.

Nonetheless, there is an underlying pattern. One measure is the booking of ad spots for national brands on local television. By early March, according to Mr Westerfield’s analysis, such bookings were growing fast across eight out of the top ten advertising sectors, led by the financial and motor industries. UBS Warburg now expects the “upfront” market, which starts in May when advertisers book advance ad spots on the TV networks for the new season in September, to be up 4% on last year. On some estimates, even online advertising could pick up by the end of the year.

31. What does the author mean by “it is not necessarily time to reach for the sunglasses” (Para.1)?

[A] The sunshine is not terribly strong.

[B] It is not good time to develop advertising.

[C] There is no need to worry about economy now.

[D] The real economic recovery has yet to take place.

32. Mr. Murdoch’s early market estimation was _____.

[A] exaggerating the situation

[B] being too cautious

[C] underestimating the development

[D] probably describing the reality

33. Which of the following is true according to the text?

[A] Advertising is a sensitive marker of economic change.

[B] Managers will first cut salary during economic downturn.

[C] CMR was wrong about last year’s U.S. ad market.

[D] Advertising spending has started overall growing.

34. Signs of improvement are visible in the advertising of _____.

[A] high-tech magazines and sports industry

[B] celebrity magazines and travel industry

[C] women’s magazines and car industry

[D] movie industry and high-tech magazines

35. What is the author’s view of the prospect of U.S. advertising market?

[A] Recovery will be slow but sure.

[B] There will be a big jump.

[C] Patchy improvement will occur.

[D] The situation will remain pessimistic.


Text 4

     There have been rumors. There's been gossip. All Hollywood is shocked to learn that Calista Flockhart, star of Fox's hit TV show Ally McBeal, is so thin. And we in the media are

 falling all over ourselves trying to figure out whether Flockhart has an eating disorder, especially now that she has denied it. Well, I'm not playing the game. If the entertainment industry really cared about sending the wrong message on body image, it wouldn't need so many slender celebrities in the first place.

    But the fact remains that 2 million Americans--most of them women and girls--do suffer from eating disorders. In the most extreme cases they literally starve themselves to death. And those who survive are at greater risk of developing brittle bones, life-threatening infections, kidney damage and heart problems. Fortunately, doctors have learned a lot over the past decade about what causes eating disorders and how to treat them.

    The numbers are shocking. Approximately 1 in 150 teenage girls in the U. S. falls victim to anorexia nervosa, broadly defined as the refusal to eat enough to maintain even a minimal body weight. Not so clear is how many more suffer from bulimia, in which they binge on food, eating perhaps two or three days' worth of meals in 30 minutes, then remove the excess by taking medicine to move the bowels or inducing vomiting. Nor does age necessarily protect you. Anorexia has been diagnosed in girls as young as eight. Most deaths from the condition occur in women over 45.

    Doctors used to think eating disorders were purely psychological. Now they realize there's some problematic biology as well. In a study published in the Archives of General Psychiatry recently, researchers found abnormal levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain, in women who had been free of bulimia for at least a year. That may help explain why drugs have allowed a lot of people to stop swallowing in large doses of food. Unfortunately, the pills don't work as well for denial of food. Nor do they offer a simple one-stop cure. Health-care workers must re-educate their patients in how to eat and think about food.

    How can you tell if someone you love has an eating disorder? "Bulimics will often leave evidence around as if they want to get caught." Says Tamara Pryor, director of an eating-disorders clinic at the University of Kansas in Wichita. Anorexics, by contrast, are more likely to go through long periods of denial.

36. We can infer from the first paragraph that one indication of the eating disorders is that

   [A] the media are divided in opinions.

   [B] there is much rumor about it.

   [C] the victim repeatedly denies that.

   [D] the body image sends the wrong message.

37. The victims of eating disorders, more often than not, will

   [A] starve themselves to death.

   [B] be cured with modem treatment.

   [C] puzzle doctors in the years to come.

   [D] suffer dearly from the complications.

38. The word "binge" (Paragraph 3) most probably means

   [A] eat excessively.

   [B] refuse to eat.

   [C] fail to digest.

   [D] enjoy a good appetite.

39. In a recent study, bulimia is found to be

   [A] fit for a simple one-stop cure.

   [B] related to the level of serotonin.

   [C] psychological rather than biological.

   [D] identical with anorexia nervosa in the cure.

40. The way to find a person with eating disorders

   [A] focuses on apparent evidence.

   [B] varies with type of the condition.

   [C] is oriented at the victim's response.

   [D] remains perplexing despite efforts made so far.


Part B

Directions:You are going to read a list of headings and a text . Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). The first and the last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

[A] Analyzing your own taste

[B] Being cautious when experimenting

[C] Finding a model to follow

[D] Getting the final look absolutely right

[E] Learning to be realistic

[F] Making regular conscious choices

When we meet people for the first time, we often make decisions about them based entirely on how they look. And, of course it’s something that works both ways, for we too are being judged on our appearance. When we look good, we feel good, which in turn leads to a more confident and self-assured manner. People then pick up on this confidence and respond positively towards us. Undoubtedly, it’s what’s inside that’s important, but sometimes we can send out the wrong signals simply by wearing inappropriate clothing or not spending enough time thinking about how others see us.


For example, people often make the mistake of trying to look like someone else they’ve seen in a magazine, but this is usually a disaster as we all have our own characteristics. Stand in front of a full-length mirror and be honest with yourself about what you see. There is no need to dwell on your faults—we all have good points and bad points—but think instead about the best way to emphasize the good ones.


When selecting your clothes each day, think about who you’re likely to meet, where you’re going to be spending most of your time and what tasks you are likely to perform. Clearly, some outfits will be more appropriate to different sorts of activity and this will dictate your choice to an extent. However, there’s no need to abandon your individual taste completely. After all, if you dress to please somebody else’s idea of what looks good, you may end up feeling uncomfortable and not quite yourself.


But to know your own mind, you have to get to know yourself. What do you truly feel good in? There are probably a few favourite items that you wear a lot—most people wear 20 per cent of their wardrobe 80 per cent of the time. Look at these clothes and ask yourself what they have in common. Are they neat and tidy, loose and flowing? Then look at the things hanging in your wardrobe that you don’t wear and ask yourself why. Go through a few magazines and catalogues and mark the things that catch your eye. Is there a common theme?


Some colors bring your natural colouring to life and others can give us a washed-out appearance. Try out new colours by all means, but remember that dressing in bright colours when you really like subtle neutral tones, or vice versa, will make you feel self-conscious and uncomfortable. You know deep down where your own taste boundaries lie. And although it’s good to challenge those sometimes with new combinations or shades, take care not to go too far all at once.


So, you’ve chosen an outfit that matches your style, your personality, your shape and your colouring. But does it fit? If something is too tight or too loose, you won’t achieve the desired effect, and no matter what other qualities it has, it won’t improve your appearance or your confidence. Sometimes, we buy things without thinking. Some people who dislike shopping grab the first thing they see, or prefer to use mail-order or the Internet. In all cases, if it doesn’t fit perfectly, don’t buy it, because the finer details are just as important as the overall style.

Reappraising your image isn’t selfish because everyone who comes into contact with you will benefit. You’ll look better and you’ll feel a better person all round. And if in doubt, you only need to read Professor Albert Mehrabian’s book Silent Messages to remind yourself how important outward appearances are. His research showed that the impact we make on each other depend 55 per cent on how we look and behave, 38 per cent on how we speak and only 7 per cent on what we actually say. So, whatever stage you are at in your life, whatever role you play, isn’t it time you made the most of yourself?


Part C


 Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points).....


During: the past thirty years, science has steadily mopped up lots of problems that were opened up by new technologies. (46) New knowledge has invariably meant new gadgets and ways of transferring information which require ever-decreasing amounts of time and energy. But wilt new knowledge always have new practical consequences? Or will the frontiers of the doable lag further and further behind those of the conceivable?

      Present theories of physics lead us to believe that there are surprising few fundamental laws of Nature. (47) Nevertheless. there seems to be an endless array of different states and structures that those laws permit--iust as there are a very small number of rules and pieces defining a game like chess, yet an endless number of different games that could be played out. Physicists are fairly confident that they are not missing something in between the forces that they have already found. When it comes to the outcomes of those discoveries and a growing appreciation of how complex organized structures come about and evolve in tandem with their environments.

     Some scientists and philosophers have taken the view that science as a whole has experienced a Golden Age that will eventually draw to a close. (48) Truly new discoveries will become harder and harder to make; minor variations will become tempting targets; deeper understanding will require greater and greater efforts of the imagination to achieve: and a wider grasp of the structure of systems of huge complexity will require more and more powerful Computers. The seam of gold that is useful science may one day be mined out, leaving only a few nuggets to be uncovered here and there by ever-increasing effort.  (49) Of course, we may not realize that the mine is exhausted: no banner will appear in the sky to tell us that further fundamental advances will require a huge leap for Mankind, rather than a gradual shuffle.

     Scientists alone do not dictate the future course of science. (50) When their activities become very expensive and have no direct technological or military relevance to the state, then their continued support will be determined by other great problems that confront society. In the future, we might expect that the development of what we will call the "problem sciences" —those studies needed to solve the great environmental, social, and medical problems that threaten

humanity's continued existence and well-being.


Section III   Writing

Part A

51. Directions:

    Suppose you are the manager of an accounting finn. One of your staff, Mr. Xue Ruixuan, is going to work in another firm. Write a letter of recommendation for him, including:

      1) why you write this letter,

      2) what you know about Mr. Xue,

      3) what you think of his ability and personality.

      You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use "Li Ming" instead. You do not need to write the address.

52. Directions:

Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay in which you should

1)    describe its drawing

2)    interpret its meaning, and

3)    give your comment on it.

You should write an essay of 160~200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(20 points)


52. Directions:

As is shown in the following chart, cases on the issues of intellectual property have been on the rise over the past few years, Write an essay that conveys the information in the chart accompanied by your comments. You should write at least 150 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.


分享到: 更多
上一篇:收藏夹:四级阅读常见“信号词”   下一篇:没有了