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09年12月六级模拟试卷及解析之六

2011-10-27 10:46

  Part I    Writing    (30 minutes)

  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled on Graduate Mania. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below。

  1. 目前很多人报考研究生;

  2. 你认为此现象的原因是什么;

  3. 你的看法。

  Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)  (15 minutes)

  Preparing for Weight Loss Surgery

  For those who consider weight loss surgery, they are at the end of their ropes. Traditional methods of diet and exercise have had no effect, and this procedure is a last resort. But by no means is the leap from thinking about weight loss surgery to the operating table a short one。

  "People need to be aware, in great detail, of the risk and benefits of weight loss surgery so they understand what it is all about," says Harvey J. Sugerman, president of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery. "The procedure is not without risk, and there is a great deal of anxiety that comes with it, so it takes considerable preparation."

  From checking on insurance coverage to psychological exams to support groups, preparing for this life-changing procedure takes time, physical and mental readiness, and most of all, commitment。

  First Steps

  "From the time a person first thinks about having weight loss surgery, to the time they make the commitment to have it done is typically about two years," says James Kolenich, a bariatric surgeon at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Horizon. "Most people don't rush into this, they talk to family and friends, they talk to the hospital, they go home and they think about it more; it's usually a very thoughtful approach."

  More than 60 million obese people are living in the U. S. , according to the American Obesity Association (AOA), and about 9 million are severely obese. Weight loss surgery, also called bariatric surgery, can be successful when diet and exercise have failed, and a person's health is on the line. Overweight is the second leading cause of preventable death, after smoking, in the U. S. , according to the AOA。

  "The first thing a person should do is contact his insurance company to learn if he is covered for the surgery, and he should contact his primary care doctor to find out if there is documentation of his struggle with obesity," says Kolenich. "Many insurance companies want to know that a primary care doctor has tried to help the patient lose weight with psychological counseling, diet, and an exercise plan for five years, and for many patients, this is a big road block."

  While there are other options, such as personally financing the procedure, they are costly: The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases web site states that this procedure can run from $ 20,000 to $ 35,000.

  With such a hefty price tag on weight loss surgery, it pays to ensure that your doctor documents your battle with obesity early on, to open up options down the road. When you've crossed all your is and dotted all your is in the insurance category, it is time to find a hospital or center, and a surgeon, which are first-rate。

  Finding a Batiatric Surgeon

  "When you're looking for a surgeon, ask if he or she is board-certified by the American Board of Surgery," says Kotenich. "Is he a member of the American Society of Bariatrie Surgeons? What is the mortality rate of the surgeon, the morbidity rate, the success rate?"

  Clearly, the surgeon you find should be well experienced in the area of weight loss surgery。

  "Make sure the surgeon you choose is an experienced and qualified bariatrie surgeon," says Daniel Herren, chief of bariatric surgery at Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York. "It's clear that the more experienced the surgeon, the lower the risk of mortality. Ideally, you would prefer to find a surgeon who has performed at least 100 of these procedures."

  What you are looking for doesn't stop with numbers and statistics--you will also need a support system, Look for a center or hospital that offers educational seminars to those who are just beginning the process so you can learn more about the actual procedure, the benefits, and the risks. Also look for support groups, that can be utilized pre- and post-operatively。

  Preparing for Weight Loss Surgery

  "The single most important factor is that they have to realize the surgery is not a cure for obesity," says Herren. "It's a very powerful tool used in the fight against obesity. It needs to be considered as part of a process, and a lifelong commitment to follow up with physicians, a regular exercise program, and healthy eating.  If a person doesn't understand that this is a lifelong commitment, that it's net a quick fix, then he or she is not a good candidate."

  From a physical standpoint, the preparation for weight loss surgery involves meeting with doctors--a lot of them。

  A person also needs to meet with a nutritionist, to begin to better understand the elements of healthy eating, and how eating habits need to change before and after the surgery. "By getting into a proper nutritional mindset before surgery, such as learning to eat smaller portions, eating Slowly, paying closer attention to the nutritional make-up of meals, a person is better adapted for the major changes in their lifestyle after the surgery," says Herron。

  Understanding the Risks

  Understanding the possible outcomes of weight loss surgery, including the risks, is an important part of preparing for the procedure. "Education is a tremendously important part of the preoperative process," says Herron.  "There is no question that there are major risks associated with the operation. However, those risks can be minimized by having a thorough preoperative workup so there aren't surprises during the procedure, and by making sure the surgeon is experienced and qualified."

  Nonetheless, dealing with the emotional toll of this procedure can be difficult, especially when considering the possibility of death. "There have been good studies looking at the risk of dying after weight loss surgery, showing that although there is a risk of death with surgery, the overall survival rate is improved with surgery compared to not having the surgery at all, and living with obesity," says Herron。

  It helps that most centers and hospitals and insurance companies, require psychological evaluations prior to the allowing the procedure--which benefits both patient and doctor. "You have to fill your mind with as much optimism and positive thinking as possible," says Joe De Simone, PhD, a psychiatrist in private practice in N. Y., who works with patients preparing for weight loss surgery.  "Basically, the preparation is to become more conscious of what you are thinking and feeling, and start preparing yourself to think of food and your life in a different way. This is a courageous step for people to take, and it's not just about weight changing--it's about life changing."

  Pest-Op Expectations

  While weight loss surgery does have a major impact on a person's life, it requires, like any surgical procedure, some recovery time. "The recovery period is quite variable," says Herron. "I have some patients who take a week off and are back full time, and others who take three to four weeks to recover. While it's certainly physically possible to be back to 90% of capacity after a week, most people take longer to adjust to the new lifestyle."

  New techniques have also helped to lessen recovery time.  Today, the procedure can be performed minimally invasively via small incisions. In a few centers around the country it can even be done on an outpatient basis。

  Patients also need to remember weight loss surgery is not a cure. "It's not a magic bullet, but is an amazingly powerful weight-loss tool," says Herron. "A person will find they will lose about a pound per day for the first month or so. Then they'll lose between 50%-75% of their excess body weight typically during the first 12 months after surgery." What follows is dedication to a healthy diet and exercise regimen, continual follow-up with doctors to monitor progress, and commitment to a new life。

  1. Weight loss surgery is one of the traditional ways of losing weight。

  2. Many people have weight loss surgery possibly because overweight may give rise to death. 3. After having the weight loss surgery, a person will not suffer from obesity any more。

  4. A person also might be required to quit smoking to improve the outcome of the operation。

  5. It is advisable that a patient have his/her operation covered by the insurance company because weight loss surgery is usually ______。

  6. A person who thinks about having weight loss surgery should find ______ bariatric surgeon。

  7. Eating smaller portions, eating slowly, paying attention to the nutritional ______ of meals are examples of healthy eating habits。

  8. During the preparing procedure, one important part is to help the candidates understand the possible outcomes and ______。

  9. According to Herron, after having the surgery, the recovery time ______ from person to person。

  10. With the development of ______, the recovery period may become shorter and shorter。

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精讲班
50讲
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考试英语一般复习方案
冲刺班
10讲
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16讲
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