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2011年大学六级冲刺成功法则

2012-02-23 15:48

2011年大学六级冲刺成功法则

Part 1.分析难句子以及正确答案的命题规律

1.选项规律的研究

(1)正确答案的特征--------同义改写的手段

1.             同义词替换

2.             词性的转化

3.             正话反说,反话正说

4.             具体与抽象转化

5.             从句与简单句的转化

6.             主动与被动的转化

7.             虚拟和真实的转化

8.             名词性短语和名词性从句的转化

9.             比较级之间转化

10.          动作和状态的转化

错误答案的命题特点:

1.             张冠李戴

2.             断章取义

3.             字面意思,肤浅直白

4.             因果颠倒,逻辑混乱

5.             偷换概念,小动作

6.             过于绝对

7.             扩大范围

8.             推理过度

9.             无据比较

10.         语态时态错误

1.Experts suggest that speech stages are reached at a constant age and promoted gradually according to the talents of humans, but there are cases where speech has started late in a child who eventually turns out to be of high IQ and has great talents in solving mathematical and physical problems.

What can be inferred from experts’ suggestions?

A. Speech abilities are entirely correspondent to human talents

B. Humans’ talents are likely to be contrary to their speech capacities

C. Children speaking late will certainly be gifted in solving mathematical problems

D. Gradual promotion of the speech ability can be changed by children’s talents.

 

2. Behavorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which can develop his or her capacity for active responses and which can encourage the curiosity of the children will have greater intellectual development.

What can be inferred from this sentence?

A.     stmuli are essential to the child’positive responses.

B.     Many stimuli can help children improve their IQ.

C.     a child’s active reponses promote the curiosity of him

D. greater intellectual development is based on the environment.

 

3. Unwillingly,he finds that students who were easy to teach because they succeeded in putting everything they had learned into practice,hesitate when confronted with the vast untouched area of English vocabulary and usage which fall outside the scope of basic textbooks.

We can infer that the students

A.     hesitate when they put everything they had been learned into practice

B.     deal with the unfamiliar English vocabulary badly because of being so dependent on teachers

C. should learn more about extracurricular knowledge rather than focusing on texbooks alone

D. can easily put the vocabulary and usage of English into practice

 

4.Studies of the Weddell seal in the laboratory have described the physiological mechanisms that allow the seals to cope with the extreme oxygen deprivation that occurs during its longest dives, which can extend 500 meters below the ocean’s surface and last for over 70 minutes.

We can learn from the sentence that the Weddell seal             . 

A. can possess unique psychological organisms

B. can deal with low-density oxygen in and out of the sea

C. can dive between the surface and 500 meter below freely

D. can be adapted to deep water with special capability

 

5. The increase in the number of married women employed outside the home had less to do with the mechanization and convenience of the housework and an increase in spare time for these women than it did with their own unavoidable economic requirements and with high marriage rates that decrease the available number of single women workers.

Which of the following account for more married female workers?

A. the mechanization and convenience of housework and high marriage rates

B. Financial burden and fewer single women workers

C. Women’s desire for leisure lives and keeping a high salary

D. Unavoidable economic demands and the importance of single women

 

6. “Your abilities and wisdom count”, Explained psychologist Michael Scheler of Carnege-Mellon University in Pittsburgh, but “the belief that you can succeed affects whether or not you will succeed and whether you can make a triumph persistently after achieving your goals.”

Which of the following could best describe Scheler’s opinion?

A. Self-confidence will decisively matter on one’s way to success

B. One’s success can be attribute to persistence and confidence

C. One should believe in himself whether he can succeed or not.

D. Your capacity and confidence will determine the likelihood of success.

 

7.The American economic system is organized around a basically private-enterprise, market-oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods that they want most and when and where the products should be sold to get their uttermost attention.

What can be inferred from the sentence?

A. Consumers can buy their needed goods whenever and wherever.

B. Producing and selling the goods are correspondents to consumers’ demands.

C. Selling and producing have an interactive influence with each other.

D. The time and place of exhibiting products are the key to selling products.

 

8. Human beings have long distinguished themselves from other animals, and in doing so ensured their survival, by the ability to observe and understand their environment and then either to adapt to that environment or to control and adapt it to their own needs.

If man is to survive,                         

A.     he should be as different as possible from other creatures

B.     he should build a good relationship with the environment

C.     he should become accustomed to its environment

D.     he can observe his own needs and enviroment

 

9. Studies show that most doctors sincerely believe that the seriously ill do not want to know that truth about their condition, and informing them risks destroying their hope, so that they may recover more lowly, or deteriorate faster, perhaps even commit suicide.

According to the studies,                          

A. Knowing the truth does little good to the recovery

B. without a doctor’s help a patient will lose heart

C. Sometimes a risk is worth taking in order to save a patient

D. A patient will recover sooner with a good doctor

 

10. Coupled with the growing quantity of information and demands of getting more useful information is the development of technologies which enable delivery of more information with greater speed to more locations and make it possible to store vast amounts of data.

What can be inferred from the sentence?

A.      Information storage is more important than delivery

B.      Improved technologies leads to obtaining more useful unformation

C.      Speedy delivery of information demands advanced technology

D.      Getting more useful information needs storing much information.、、

特殊结构的突破

一. 倒装句子

1. 否定副词放句首要求倒装

(1) Americans no longer expect public figures to command the English language with skill and gift. Nor do they aspire to such command themselves.

(3) No longer could I count on people to take precautions to deal with those serious problems.

2. 某些固定词组要求倒装

(1) Not only has the Government refused to consult with the people of Australia on this issue of decreasing the duty rates, they have also refused to consult with them on increasing the export and import between tow countries.

(2) So addicted to electronic games the students became that our schools should control the time of surfing the internet for the children.

3. 某些语法要求倒装

(1) However, should policy measures be taken to boost economic growth and make the growth process more inclusive to the poor, the World Bank would reckon that 500 million people could be brought out of extreme poverty by 2008.

4. 为了平衡句子关系要求倒装

(1) Coupled with the centralization of economic growth is the disappearance of the extended families in favor of isolated, two-generation households.

(2) Along with them goes social mobility, ambitions to rise in the urban world, a main factor in bringing down the births in Europe in the nineteenth century.

二.主语、宾语后置

1. It is generally accepted that the experience of the child in his first years largely determines his character and later personality.

2. Many communities have a low literacy rate, making impossible handing out AIDS literature and expectatiing people to read it.

3. He says our doctors must make it clear that painful deaths without proper use of medicine are presumptively ones that are incompetently managed and should result in license suspension.

4. I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic way about moral problems.

三. 与than搭配的短语或结构的翻译

(1)else/other than: 除……之外

(2)nothing else than/but: 相当于nothing but,意为“只,只有”

(3)nothing if not: 极其

(4)would/had rather/sooner…than: 宁愿……也不……

(5)no sooner…than…: 一……就

(6)no more than: 仅仅,只是

(7)no less than: 简直是,实在是

(8)no/none other than: 正是,就是

(9)no more…than…/not any more…than: 和……一样都不

(10)more…than…: 与其……不如

下面举例说明:

1. What he did was nothing else than a practical joke.

2. He would rather die than yield.

3. No sooner had he got off the train than his daughter ran towards him.

4. The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.

5. As a nation, the French are no more eager to learn about their wartime failings than are the Japanese.

6. He didn’t know anyone at the wedding other than the bride and groom.

7. He is none other than the man I met in Los Angles five years ago.

四.与but搭配的短语和结构的翻译

(1) not only…but also…: 不但……而且……

(2) not that…but that…: 不是因为……,而是因为……;不是说……,而是说……

(3) but that…: 要不是……

(4) but for…: 要不是……

(5) but then…: 但另一方面

(6) cannot help but do something: 不得不……

(7) cannot choose but do something: 不得不……

(8) have no choice/alternative but to do…: 不得不

(9) there is nothing for…but to do something: 除了……别无他法

(10) nothing but…: 除了……之外没有……;不过是……;仅仅是……

(11) anything but…: 完全(绝对)不是……;一点也不……

(12) all but…: 几乎;除……之外其余都(=all except)

五. as作为介词或连词时的翻译及结构的翻译

(1) just as: 正如

(2) as if/as though: 好像

(3) A is to B as C is to D. A比之于B正如C比之于D。

(4) as…as: 和……一样

(5) as far as someone is concerned: 据某人所知;就……而言

(6) not so much…as…: 与其说……(还/倒)不如说……;有时也可以改变成not so

(7) much…but…,意思不变。

(8) not so much as…: 连……都不肯……

(9) not so +形容词+ but +从句: 虽然……但是……

(10) nothing + like(near) as (so) …as…: 远远不像……那样

(11) A is not…as well as B. B实施或被实施某种行为,但A没有

(12) as…so…: 像……那样,……也就……;随着……,也就……

(13) as作为关系代词引导的结构,一般位于句首,常见有:

(14) as to关于;as for至于;as yet至今仍

其他:

(1) ... not so much...... as (but) ... 与其说……还不如说……

   (2) ... not so much that.....as (but) that...... 与其说……还不如说……

  (3) ... not so much as..... (=not even) 甚至于不……,连……也不……

例1:He is not so much a teacher as a scholar.

译文:与其说他是老师,还不如说是学者。(注意翻译时动作的对象)

例2:It wasn't so much his appearance I liked as his personality.

译文:与其说我喜欢他的外表,不如说我喜欢他的品格。

例3:It's not so much that I don't want to come but I just haven't got the time.

译文:倒不是因为我不想来,而是我根本没有时间。

例4:He didn't so much as say thank you after all we'd done for him.

译文:我们为他干了那么多事,他甚至连谢谢都没有说一声。

例5:You might as well throw your money into the sea as lend it to him.

译文:与其将钱借给他,还不如把钱丢进大海。

特殊句型的翻译

1.

  (1) ... not so much...... as (but) ... 与其说……还不如说……

  (2) ... not so much that.....as (but) that...... 与其说……还不如说……

  (3) ... not so much as..... (=not even) 甚至于不……,连……也不……

  例1:He is not so much a teacher as a scholar.

  译文:与其说他是老师,还不如说是学者。(注意翻译时动作的对象)

  例2:It wasn't so much his appearance I liked as his personality.

  译文:与其说我喜欢他的外表,不如说我喜欢他的品格。

  例3:It's not so much that I don't want to come but I just haven't got the time.

  译文:倒不是因为我不想来,而是我根本没有时间。

  例4:He didn't so much as say thank you after all we'd done for him.

  译文:我们为他干了那么多事,他甚至连谢谢都没有说一声。

  例5:You might as well throw your money into the sea as lend it to him.

  译文:与其将钱借给他,还不如把钱丢进大海。(注意翻译时动作的对象)

  [注意]:more ... than ...

  1) she is more beautiful than her sister. 她比她姐姐漂亮。

  2) George is more intelligent than aggressive. 与其说乔治言行放肆,不如说他聪颖过人。

  以上第1)句是more... than结构的一般用法,即在两个不同的事物之间就同一方面作比较;而第2)句是就同一个人的两个不同方面作比较。因此要译成“与其说……还不如说……”。

  more...than结构在上述1) 2)两句中的用法也适用于less ... than结构,得出相反的含义:

  例如:

  1) John is less daring than quick-witted. 与其说约翰胆大,不如说他脑子灵活。

  2) George was less intelligent than aggressive. 与其说乔治聪颖过人,不如说他言行放肆。

 2. none but (=nothing but): 只有 (=only)

  None but the brave deserves the fair. 只有英雄才配得上美人。

  She chose none but the best. 她只选最好的。

  She is nothing but a child. 她只不过是个孩子。

 3.none other than: (表示惊讶)不是别人,正是…… (= no one else but)

  It’s none other than Tom! We thought you were in Africa.

 4.none the +比较级词+ for: 毫不,一点也不

  He spent 2 weeks in hospital but he’s none the better for it.

  他在医院里待了两个星期,但一点也没好转。

  My car is none the worse for wear. 我的车子一点也没有损耗。

  none the wiser: 不知情

  If we take only one piece of cake, mother will be none the wiser.

  如果我们只拿一小块蛋糕,母亲是不会知道的。

 5.none too: (在形容词或副词前) 不太;一点都不

  The service in this restaurant is none too fast. 这家旅馆的服务一点效率都没有。

 6.anything but: ①除---之外什么都(此处的but等于except)②决不(=not at all)

  I eat anything but (except) fish. 除了鱼,我什么都吃。

  She is anything but a good cook. 她决不是个好厨师。(即:除了好厨师,她什么都是。)

 7.It is not that...but that... 这不是说……,而是说……

  例1: It is not that the scales in the one case, and the balance in the other, differ in the principles of their construction or manner of working; but that the latter is much finer apparatus and of course much more accurate in its measurement than the former.

  译文:这并不是说在一种情况下所使用的磅秤和另一种情况下所用的天平在构造原理上或工作方式上存在差别,而是说与前者相比,后者是一种更精密得多的装置,因而在计量上必然更加准确。

 8.can not...too... 再……也不过分

  例1: We cannot be too careful of health. 我们无论如何注意健康也不为过。

  例2: You cannot be too careful when you drive a car. 你开车时再小心也不过分。

  例3: We can not be too faithful to our duties. 我们必须尽力忠于职守。

9.no less...than,意为:“和……同样是……”。例如:

  Human is no less an animal than a monkey is. 人和猴都是动物。

no less than 的意思为:“简直是,实在是”,例如:

  1) It is no less than blackmail to ask such a high price. 如此索要高价,简直是敲诈。

 10.It occurs to sb. that… (某人) 想起……

  例1: It occurred to me suddenly that I had met him somewhere.

  译文:我突然想起在什么地方见过他。

  例2: It occurred to me that she was jealous of me.

  译文:我突然发觉她嫉妒我。

 11.other...than... 或other than... 不同于,非;除了

  例l: Plants which refine crude ores are often located in countries other than those in which the crude ores are mined.

  译文:提炼矿石的厂房通常不是设在采矿石的国家而设在其它国家。

  例2: Reactions other than the desired one often occur when reactants are brought together.

  译文:当这些反应物放在一起时,常发生不希望有的一些反应。(即:…常发生与希望有的反应不同的反应。)

 12.nothing but (= none but = only): 仅仅,只不过

  We could see nothing but fog. 除了雾之外我们什么也看不见。

 13.make nothing of: (常和can一起用)不理解;不重视,轻视 (= think nothing of)

  I could make nothing of the passage. 我不理解这篇文章。

  He makes / thinks nothing of working ten hours a day. 他不在乎一天工作十小时。

14.to say nothing of: 更不用说(= not to mention / without mentioning)

  Three people were badly hurt, to say nothing of damage to the building.

  三个人受了重伤,建筑物的损害更不用说了。

15.have nothing to do with: 与……无关

  I have nothing to do with the accident. 我与这场事故无关。

16.nothing if not: 格外地;非常地 (= very / much / extremely)

  He was nothing if not clever. (= He was very clever.) 他格外聪明。

  nothing of: 无……的部分;无……的气质

  There was nothing of the lady in her behavior. 她的举止根本没有淑女的气质。

17.all but 几乎,差一点,除……以外其余都是

  but for要不是

  but that+从句:若不是…

  例1:She all but fainted when she heard the news.

  译文:她听到这一消息时几乎晕倒了。

  注:此句中a11 but意为nearly,almost。

  试对比:

  All but the little children thought that the trip was exciting.

  译文:除了小孩,大家都认为这次旅行是激动人心的。

  此句中all but意为a11 except。

  例2:But for the rain we should have a pleasant journey.

  译文:要不是下雨,我们的旅行本来是愉快的。

  例3:He would have helped us but that he was short of money at the time.

  译文:若不是他那时缺钱,他是会帮助我们的。

  注1).but that引导的从句中谓语用陈述语气。2).but that有灵活的译法。如:Nothing would satisfy that child but that I place her on my lap.(那孩子什么都不要,只要我把她抱在怀里。)

18.“only + to do”意为“……,结果却……”,即表示与句子谓语动作的目的相反的结果。

  例1: They don't have to pay for expensive seats at the theatre, the cinema or the opera, only

  to discover, perhaps, that the show is disappointing.

  译文:他们不必花钱去戏院、电影院或歌剧院买价格很贵的票,(如果去了,)结果却可能发现,所演的节目令人失望。

  例2: They hurried there only to find the meeting canceled.

  译文:他们匆匆忙忙赶到那儿,结果却发现会议被取消了。

19. not more / -er than 与 no more / -er than 结构

  比较:

  John is not better than Tom.

  John is no better than Tom.

  前一句表示“约翰不比汤姆好”,属于普通的比较结构;后一例用了no 情况就不同了。no better than 相当于as bad as,含义是两人一样坏。这里,“no + 形容词或副词比较级 + than”所表示的可以说是该形容词或副词的反意。

  例如: no richer than = as poor as 和……一样穷

  no bigger than = as small as 和……一样小

  no later than = as early as 和……一样早

  同样地:

  I have not taken more than six courses this semester.

  I have taken no more than six courses this semester.

  前一句的含义是本学期选的课不多于六门;后一句的含义是只选了六门。强调“少”。

20.no more...than... (= not...any more than) 和……—样都不……(表示前后都否定)

  例如:

  1) Jack is no more intelligent than John. (=Jack is not intelligent any more than John.)

  杰克与约翰一样都不聪明。

  2) A man can no more fly than a bird can speak. (=A man cannot fly any more than a bird can speak.) 人不会飞翔,就像鸟不会说话一样。

Part 2 阅读的出题规律和技巧

第一节问论据所证明的论点

题型特点:

事实说话往往是最有效的论证方式之一,命题专家在设置题目时往往也会针对文中的事例设问,考查考生对局部结构的理解。例证题1994年第一次出现在考研试 卷上,共两道题,占4分。但在1995年至1998年间,没有出现过一道例证题,1999年再次出现,一样是两道题,占4分。之后,几乎每年的考题都有两 道至三道例证题,这就说明考研命题的一大特点,命题规则总是不断重复的。考生们在应用例证原则解题时还应注意常用的例证方式有两种:一是先提出观点,后举 例说明;二是先列举事例再做出结论。考生应当学会举一反三,不要被各种原则的变化形式所迷惑。  当询问论据的写作目的时, 注意区分论点和论据。题干特点:

1.     sth or sb is mentioned to illustrate           

2.     The author metions the example of sth to demonstrate       

3.     the example of sth is mentioned to show                     

4.     when mentioning the example of sth, the author means                 

5.     what does the author illustrate with sth?

6.     the example of sth is noted to suggest                                

7.     by citing the example of sth, the author means                   

8.     by referring to the example of sth, the author indicates that      

实例分析:

例1

Hudson Institute researchers believe that federal tax and benefit policies are at fault and reforms are urgently needed, but they disagree with the popular proposal that much older Americans will have to work because Social Security will not support them and that baby boomers are not saving enough for retirement. According to the increase in 401 (k) and Keogh retirement plans, the ongoing stock market on Wall Street, and the likelihood of large inheritances, there is evidence that baby boomers will reach age 65 with greater financial assets than previous generations.

题目:When mentioning “the ongoing stock market on Wall Street”, the writer

[A] is calling attention to the retirement plans and larger inheritance

[B] is showing the huge benefits of attending the stock market.

  [C] is showing that older people can be rich enough for retirement.

  [D] is justifying the ineffectiveness of federal tax and benefit policies.

例 2

What they found, in attempting to model thought, is that the human brain's roughly one hundred billion nerve cells are much more talented—and human perception far more complicated—than previously imagined. They have built robots that can recognize the error of a machine panel by a fraction of a millimeter in a controlled factory environment. But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant, instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd. The most advanced computer systems on Earth can't approach that kind of ability, and neuroscientists still don't know quite how we do it.

题目:The author uses the example of a monkey to argue that robots are        .
[A] expected to copy human brain in internal structure.

[B] focusing on monkey at the side of a winding forest road

[C] far less able than human brain in focusing on relevant information.

[D] much more talented than previously imagined

例3

To take advantage of this tool, some impoverished countries will have to get over their outdated anti-colonial prejudices with respect to foreign investment. Countries that still think foreign investment is an invasion of their sovereignty might well study the history of infrastructure (the basic structural foundations of a society) in the United States. When the United States built its industrial infrastructure, it didn't have the capital to do so. And that is why America's Second Wave infrastructure-including roads, harbors, highways, ports and so on-were built with foreign investment. The English, the Germans, the Dutch and the French were investing in Britain's former colony. They financed them. Immigrant Americans built them. Guess who owns them now? The Americans. I believe the same thing would be true in places like Brazil or anywhere else for that matter. The more foreign capital you have helping you build your Third Wave infrastructure, which today is an electronic infrastructure, the better off you're going to be. That doesn't mean lying down and becoming fooled, or letting foreign corporations run uncontrolled. It does mean recognizing how important they can be in building the energy and telecom infrastructures needed to take full advantage of the Internet.

题目:The writer mentioned the case of the United States to justify the policy of _________.
[A]getting financial support from overseas
[B]getting over their out-dated anti-colonial prejudices

[C]building industrial infrastructure
[D]being invaded in sovereignty

例 4  

(1)Many things make people think artists are weird but the weirdest may be like this: artists' only job is to explore emotions, and yet they choose to focus on the ones that feel bad.

(2)This wasn't always so. The earliest forms of art, like painting and music, are those best suited for expressing joy. But somewhere in the 19th century, more artists began seeing happiness as insipid, phony or, worst of all, boring as we went from Wordsworth's daffodils to Baudelaire's flowers of evil.

题目:By citing the example of poets Wordsworth and Baudelaire, the author intends to show that
  A. Poetry is not as expressive of joy as painting or music.
  B. Art grows out of both positive and negative feeling.
  C. Poets today are less skeptical of happiness.
  D. Artist have changed their focus of interest.

第二节 词汇和句子的特定含义的理解

概论:

阅读中的词汇题通常会有两种情况,一种是考生一看到所考的单词立刻心跳加速:“完了,这个词不认识,大纲上也没有。”还有就是一看到单词,立刻欣喜不已: “哈哈,这么容易的单词。”第一种情况下考生往往会随便猜一个选项,错误率很高。而第二种情况下,考生往往落入命题专家的陷阱,不知不觉地失了分,原因是 考生并没有掌握阅读词汇题的基本命题原则。在阅读部分的词汇题要考的并不是考生认不认识题中所考的单词,否则便是命题失效。此处要考的是考生阅读中的推断 能力,也就是说题中所考单词的词义必定能根据上下文推断出来。所以考生在遇到阅读中的词汇题时,一定要冷静,去上下文中细找,推断出词义后,可将词义代入 原文看是否通畅。  经常考同义关系:并列或递进关系表示同义:例如:and, indeed, just as, also, besides, 等均为表示并列关系。标点符号暗示语义关系:破折号、冒号、或括号均表示同义解释。并列句子的同位和同性词很重要。

题型特点:

当询问词句在上下文的特殊含义,注意结合原文进行理解,判断在文章中的特殊含义。有的词汇是大纲的词汇,还有可能是超纲词汇或句子,要注意引申含义,

解题思路:

回原文定位,并从语法和词义上对原文原句进行精确剖析,先排除字面意思,然后判断句子与下文的逻辑关系,上下文是关键,上下文指的是关键词(考查的词或词 组)所在的句子本身,更主要的是这个句子的上下句或更远的上下文。一般而言,上下文线索所提示的意义与关键词的关系要么为同义关系,要么

题干特点:

1.     According to the author, the word “…”means

2.     by “…”,the author means

3.     which of the following is closet in meaning to “…”

4.     the word “…” in the passage means

5.     “…” in the passage is

6.     the word “…” most likely means

正确答案,错误答案的特点:1,2

例 1

Overseas assignments are becoming increasingly important to advancement within executive ranks. The executive stationed in another country no longer need fear being “out of sight and out of mind.” He or she can be sure that the overseas effort is central to the company’s plan for success, and that promotions often follow or accompany an assignment abroad. If an employee can succeed in a difficult assignment overseas, superior will have greater confidence in his or her ability to cope back in the United States where cross-cultural considerations and foreign language issues are becoming more and more prevalent (普遍的).

In this passage, “out of sight and out of mind” (Lines 2-3, Para. 3) probably means .

A. being unable to think properly for lack of sight

B. being totally out of touch with business at home

C. missing opportunities for promotion when abroad

D. being away from overseas assignments and their could-be advancement 

例 2

While it’s true that we all need a career, it is equally true that our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge in fields far removed from our own and that we are better for our understanding of these other contributions — be they scientific or artistic. It is equally true that, in studying the diverse wisdom of others, we learn how to think. More importantly, perhaps, education teaches us to see the connections between things, as well as to see beyond our immediate needs in a broad way.

By saying “While it’s true that… be they scientific or artistic? (Lines 1-3, Para. 5), the author means that ________.

A. an incredible amount of knowledge should be included in educational programs

B. human wisdom has accumulated at an extraordinarily high speed

C. human intellectual development has reached new heights

D. the importance of a broad education should not be overlooked

例 3
   “We are all excited at the spirit of an industry which is unfettered (无拘无束的) and unrestrained, because each person works for himself … We have no princes, for whom we toil (干苦力活),starve, and bleed: we are the most perfect society now existing in the world.” The promise of a land where “the rewards of a man’s industry follow with equal steps the progress of his labor” drew poor immigrants from Europe and fueled national expansion into the western territories.

题目:By saying “the rewards of a man’s industry follow with equal steps the progress of his labor” (Line 10, Para. 1), the author means __________ .

A) the more diligent one is, the bigger his returns are

B) laborious work ensures the growth of an industry

C) the rewards of a man will be dependent on bleeding toils

D) working hard is bound to guarantee one’s success

例 4

When it comes to the slowing economy, Ellen Spero isn't biting her nails just yet. But the 47-year-old manicurist isn't cutting, filling or polishing as many nails as she'd like to, either. Most of her clients spend $12 to $50 weekly, but last month two longtime customers suddenly stopped showing up. Spero blames the softening economy. "I'm a good economic indicator," she says. "I provide a service that people can do without when they're concerned about saving some dollars." So Spero is downscaling, shopping at middle-brow Dillard's department store near her suburban Cleveland home, instead of Neiman Marcus. "I don't know if other clients are going to abandon me, too" she says.

By "Ellen Spero isn't biting her nails just yet"(Line 1), the author means

A. Spero can hardly maintain her business.

B. Spero is too much engaged in her work.

C. Spero has grown out of her bad habit.

D. Spero is not in a desperate situation.

例 5

Tight-lipped elders used to say, "It's not what you want in this world, but what you get.“Psychology teaches that you do get what you want if you know what you want and want the right things.”

What do the elders mean when they say, "It's not what you want in this world, but what

you get. "?

A. You'll certainly get what you want.

B. It's no use dreaming.

C. You should be dissatisfied with what you have.

D. It's essential to set a goal for yourself.

第三节 推理题的解题

概论:

1.推理题是测试中较难的一种题型,且出现的比例也日趋变大,有必要予以重视。这类试题的答案不可能直接在文章中找到,要根据上下文中出现过的暗示、隐喻,经过思考推敲、归纳分析推理才能确定。

2.因此能否抓住文中内含语义成了正确选择的关键。必须注意结论与文中所列举的事实依据相一致,做出一个合情、合理、合乎逻辑的结论此外,有时还要求考生 根据文章的内容推断出短文的出处,它在上一段或下一段的内容是什么。只有在真正领悟了文章的内容、作者的写作风格后,才能做好这类题。

此类题目最常见的提问形式有:

1. What can be inferred from the passage?

2. We can infer from the passage.

3. It is suggested by the author that.

4. Which of the following would the writer probably agree with?

5. The author implies/is implying that.

6. The last sentence of the passage implies that.

7. The passage suggests that.

8. It is most likely that.

9. The passage is intended to.

10. An inference which may not be made from this passage is.

分析共同特征:

1.     很多题都包括以下词组:the author believes that,what can be inferred?

2.     包含以下词汇:infer,imply, conclude, may believe, can see

特别提示

推理题涉及到文章,段落,句子的推理,但其实都是根据文章某些细节做推理,只是覆盖面大小而已, 在进行推理的过程中,要记住以下四个原则

一.   所谓推理,其实就是同义转化,只不过是句子层面的同义转化

二.   所谓推理,只是使用最普通的逻辑, 特殊情况绝对不能用做推理的标准

三.   所谓推理,只能在原文提供的证据范围内推理, 绝对不可以按照自己的经验,即使某个选项是科学的,但原文没有证据,也一样不可以入选

四.   所谓推理,只能进行一步推理, 不要推理太远, 甚至一推到底

例1

For life to develop in another planet, two conditions, at least, are necessary: (1) moderate temperature, as the result of suitable distance from a heat source, and (2) a range of temperature that is stable over a period of at least 3.7 billion years. The unlikelihood that such conditions are often to be found in the universe makes it highly probable that life exists only on Earth.

What can be inferred from the passage?

[A]. A certain temperature range is the only condition essential to the development of life on a planet.

[B]. the requirements of supporting life may not be found on other planets

[C]. Forms of life on other planets would require some of the same conditions as do earthly forms of life.

[D]. There is no satisfactory explanation of why life developed on earth and not on other planets.

例 2

After a rebellion in a certain country was put down, the country’s parliament debated how to deal with the defeated rebels. One side proposed that all the rebels be imprisoned in order to deter those who might be strongly tempted to rebel in the future. The other side argued against imprisonment because it would only discourage future insurrectionists(起义者), from surrendering.

What can be inferred from the passage?

[A]. imprisonment is a harsh penalty for a rebel

[B]. A rebel will prefer a sentence of imprisonment to death.

[C]. There will be no future rebellion in the country.

[D]. It is unlikely that future rebels will surrender.

例 3

Consumer activists are pressing Congress for better privacy laws without much result so far. The legislators lean toward letting business people track our financial habits virtually at will. As an example of what's going on, consider U.S. Bancorp, which was recently sued for deceptive practices by the state of Minnesota. According to the lawsuit, the bank supplied a telemarketer called MemberWorks with sensitive customer data such as names, phone numbers, bank-account and credit-card numbers, Social Security numbers, account balances and credit limits.

We know from the passage that         .

A. legislators are acting to pass a law to provide better privacy protection

B. most states are turning a blind eye to the deceptive practices of private businesses

C. the state of Minnesota is considering drawing up laws to protect private information

D. lawmakers are inclined to give a free hand to businesses to inquire into customers' buying habits

例 4

At the same time, we have fully entered the Information Age,.Starting breakthroughs in information technology have irreversibly altered the ability to conduct business unconstrained by the traditional limitations of time or space. Today, it’s almost impossible to imagine a world without intranets, e-mail, and portable computers. With stunning speed, the Internet is profoundly changing the way we work, shop, do business, and communicate.

We know from the passage that         .

A) The rapid development of information technology has taken businessmen by surprise

B) Information technology has removed the restrictions of time and space in business transaction

C) The Internet, intranets, e-mail, and portable computers have penetrated every corner of the world.

D) The way we do business today has brought about startling breakthroughs in information technology.

第四节 判断作者或人物的观点和语气题

概论:

作者写篇文章,在表露自己感情态度时,往往会使用不同的表达方法。有的直抒胸意,通过个别词汇、个别句子等让读者一目了然,而很多作者的语气和态度往往不 是直接在文章中写出来,这并不意味着作者没有自己的情绪和态度,而是运用一些含有感情色彩、体现价值、描述情景的措辞或其他修辞手段(如:比喻,嘲讽)等 形式表现出来。因此,在识别作者的态度或观点时,要注意寻找这些词。一般来说,这些词通常是名词、形容词或副词。例如,作者在展开主题时所使用的修饰词 satisfaction(满意),to be sure(当然了),fragrant(令人愉快的), magnanimous (宽宏大量)等,还有诸如ruffled(烦恼的),stingy(吝啬的)之类带有消极意义的词。

观点态度题常见的词汇:

褒义词:positive赞成的;supporting 支持的;praising 赞扬的;optimistic乐观的admiring 羡慕的;interesting 有趣的; serious严肃的;enthusiastic热情的;pleasant 愉快的;concerned 关切的; sober 冷静的;approving赞同,认可;informative 提供信息的;instructive 有教育意义的,启发性的;positive 正面的,肯定的;humorous幽默的,等。

中性词:indifferent 冷淡的,不关心的;neutral 中立的;detached 超然的;concerned 关心的;indifferent  不感兴趣的;objective 客观的;serious 严肃的;impersonal 不带个人感情的;impartial 不偏祖的;apathetic 漠不关心的。

贬义词:disgusted 感到恶心的;critical 批判的,挑剔的;negative 否定的,反对的;suspicious怀疑的;tolerant 容忍的,忍让的;worried 担忧的;questioning 质疑的;pessimistic悲观的;subjective 主观的;doubtful 表示怀疑的;ironic 讽刺性的;depressed 沮丧的,等

共性特点:

1.     题干中往往包括the author’attitude towards sth is that

2.     选项内容基本在以下词语范围内: optimistric, pesssimistic, indiferent, puzzled, biased, objective, gloomy, feared, supportive, indignant, confused, oppressive, critical, disappointed, amazed, approval,disapproval, impartial

3.     要弄清楚是任务观点还是作者观点

在文章中的出题位置:

1.     文章中表达作者观点的句子

2.     文章中使用的情态动词的句子: may,should, shouldn't must

3.     文章中情感色彩较浓的形容词和副词,动词

4.     文章出现强转折的地方:but,however

5.     文章开头段和结尾段的第一句

正确答案, 错误答案的特点:1,2

例 1

One more reason not to lose sleep over the rise in oil prices is that, unlike the rises in the 1970s, it has not occurred against the background of general commodity-price inflation and global excess demand. A sizable portion of the world is only just emerging from economic decline. The Economist's commodity price index is broadly unchanging from a year ago. In 1973 commodity prices jumped by 70%, and in 1979 by almost 30%. 

 

[A] optimistic.  [B]overconfident [C] gloomy. [D] scared.

例 2

Such standardized tests may not assess all the important elements necessary to succeed in school and in life, argues Rober J, Sternberg. In his article “ How Intelligent Is Intelligence Testing?”, Sternberg notes that traditional tests best assess analytical and verbal skills but fail to measure creativity and practical knowledge, components also critical to problem solving and life success. Moreover, IQ tests do not necessarily predict so well once populations or situations change. Research has found that IQ predicted leadership skills when the tests were given under low-stress leadership-----that is, it predicted the opposite. Anyone who has toiled through SAT will testify that test-taking skill also matters, whether it’s knowing when to guess or what questions to skip.

题目: we can conclude from the last paragraph that

A. supportive

B. skeptical

C. impartial

D. biased

例 3

It is brand new world---a world built around brands. Hard-charging, noise-making, culture-shaping are everywhere. “our intellectual lives and our public spaces are being taken over by marketing--------and that has real implications for citizenship,” says the activist Naomi Klein.

“ It is important for any health culture to have public space---a place where people are treated as citizens instead of as consumers. “We have completely lost that space.”

题目:Naomi Klein’s attitude towards the infliltration of brands into public places is one of

A.     acceptance

B.     ambivalence

C.     outrage

D.     dissatisfaction

例 4

Does that mean that further rate cuts are off the table?  Hardly. Watch for Greeenspan to time any rate reductions when making sure that they will not have the most psychological influences on business and investor’s confidence. That is surely no easy feat, but it is one that Greenspan has shown himself capable of more than once in the past. Don't be surprised if he surprises everyone again.

题目:The author seems to regard Greenspan’s manipulation of interest rates with

A.     doubt

B.     surprise

C.     approval

D.     admiration

五.主旨大意

题干特点:

The central point of the selection is that

The selection is concerned primarily with

What does the passage mainly discuss?

Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?

Which of the following is the main topic for this passage?

Which sentence best expresses the central point of the selection?

What would be an appropriate title for this passage?

Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the passage?

The best title for this passage would be/might be/is.

例 1

 When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal. With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right, it can hardly be classed as Literature.

 This, in brief, is what the Futurist says; for a noise and violence and speed. Consequently, our feelings, thoughts and emotions have undergone a corresponding change. This speeding up of life, says the Futurist, requires a new form of expression. We must speed up our literature too, if we want to interpret modern stress. We must pour out a large stream of essential words, unhampered by stops, or qualifying adjectives, of finite verbs. Instead of describing sounds we must make up words that imitate them; we must use many sizes of type and different colored inks on the same page, and shorten or lengthen words at will.

 Certainly their descriptions of battles are confused. But it is a little upsetting to read in the explanatory notes that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river and then to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers:` Pluff! Pluff! A hundred and eighty-five kilograms.'

 This, though it fulfills the laws and requirements of Futurist poetry, can hardly be classed as Literature. All the same, no thinking man can refuse to accept their first proposition: that a great change in our emotional life calls for a change of expression. The whole question is really this: have we essentially changed?

This passage is mainly____ .

A. a new movement in art

B. a review of Futurist poetry

C. about merits of the Futurist movement

D. about laws and requirements of literature

例 2

If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile, you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems. Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view. Depending on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different. If you are talking to a group of managers, you may refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want to comment on their disorganized bosses.

Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses' convention, of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on. Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. "Who is that?" the new arrival asked St. Peter. "Oh, that's God," came the reply, "but sometimes he thinks he's a doctor."

If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it'll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman's notorious bad taste in ties. With other audiences you mustn't attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman. You will be on safer ground if you stick to scapegoats like the Post Office or the telephone system.

If you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice so that it becomes more natural. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often it's the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light-hearted remark.

Look for the humor. It often comes from the unexpected. A twist on a familiar quote "If at first you don't succeed, give up" or a play on words or on a situation. Search for exaggeration and understatements. Look at your talk and pick out a few words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with humor.

The best title for the text may be ________.

A. Use Humor Effectively

B. Various Kinds of Humor

C. Add Humor to Speech

D. Different Humor Strategies

例 3

One hundred and thirteen million Americans have at least one bank-issued credit card. They give their owners automatic credit in stores, restaurants, and hotels, at home, across the coun- try, and even abroad, and they make many banking services available as well. More and more of these credit cards can be read automatically, making it possible to withdraw or deposit money in scattered locations, whether or not the local branch bank is open. For many of us the "cashless society" is not on the horizon-it's already here.

While computers offer these conveniences to consumers , they have many advantages for sell- ers too. Electronic cash registers can do much more than simply ring up sales. They can keep a wide range of records, including who sold what, when, and to whom. This information allows businessmen to keep track of their list of goods by showing which items are being sold and how fast they are moving. Decisions to reorder or return goods to suppliers can then be made. At the same time these computers reoord which hours are busiest and which employees are the most effi- cient , allowing personnel and staffing assignments to be made accordingly. And they also identify preferred customers for promotional canlpaigns.

Computers are relied on bv manufacturers for similar reasons. Computer-analyzed marketing reports can help to decide which products to emphasize now, which to develop for the future , and which to drop. Computers keep track of goods in stock, of raw materials on hand, and even of the production process itself.

Numerous other commercial enterprises , from theaters to magazine publishers, from gas and electric utilities to milk processors , bring better and more efficialt services to consumers through the use of computers.

What is this passage mainly about?

A. Approaches to the commercial use of computers.

B. Conveniences brought about by computers in business.

C. Significance of automation in commercial enterprises.

D. Advantages of credit cards in business.

例 4

Many folks see silver linings to this slowdown. Potential home buyers would cheer for lower interest rates. Employers wouldn't mind a little fewer bubbles in the job market. Many consumers seem to have been influenced by stock-market swings, which investors now view as a necessary ingredient to a sustained boom. Diners might see an upside, too. Getting a table at Manhattan's hot new Alain Ducasse restaurant need to be impossible. Not anymore. For that, Greenspan & Co. may still be worth toasting.

What is the main idea of the paragraph ?

A. They would benefit in certain ways.

B. The stock market shows signs of recovery.

C. Such a slowdown usually precedes a boom.

D. The purchasing power would be enhanced.

六.原因细节题

例 1

Supporters of the new super systems argue that these mergers will allow for substantial cost reductions and better coordinated service. Any threat of monopoly, they argue, is removed by fierce competition from trucks. But many shippers comp lain that for heavy bulk commodities traveling long distances, such as coal, chemicals, and grain, trucking is too costly and the railroads therefore have them by the throat. 

题目: According to those who support mergers, railway monopoly is unlikely because 

[A]. cost reduction is based on competition. 

[B]. services call for cross-trade coordination. 

[C]. outside competitors will continue to exist. 

[D]. shippers will have the railway by the throat.

例2

Many captive shippers also worry they will soon be hit with a round of huge rate increases. The railroad industry as a whole, despite its brightening fortunes, still does not earn enough to cover the cost of the capital it must invest to keep up with its surging traffic. Yet railroads continue to borrow billions to acquire one another, with Wall Street cheering them on. Consider the $10.2 billion bid by Norfolk Southern and CSX to acquire Conrail this year. Conrail's net railway operating income in 1996 was just $427 million, less than half of the carrying costs of the transaction. Who's going to pay for the rest of the bill? Many captive shippers fear that they will, as Norfolk Southern and CSX increase their grip on the market.

According to the text, the cost increase in the rail industry is mainly caused by ________.
  [A] the continuing acquisition
  [B] the growing traffic
  [C] the cheering Wall Street
  [D] the shrinking market

例 3

This is an explosive situation for any industry, particularly a declining one. Here is a troubled business that keeps hiring employees whose attitudes vastly annoy the customers. Then it sponsors lots of symposiums and a credibility project dedicated to wondering why customers are annoyed and fleeing in large numbers. But it never seems to get around to noticing the cultural and class biases that so many former buyers are complaining about. If it did, it would open up its diversity program, now focused narrowly on race and gender, and look for reporters who differ broadly by outlook, values, education, and class.

Despite its efforts, the newspaper industry still cannot satisfy the readers owing to its ________.
  [A] failure to realize its real problem
  [B] tendency to hire annoying reporters
  [C] likeliness to do inaccurate reporting
  [D] prejudice in matters of race and gender

例 4

A history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, it may become a driving force. When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale. Its scientists were the world's best, its workers the most skilled. America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed.

The U.S. achieved its predominance after World War II because ________.
[A] it had made painstaking efforts towards this goal
[B] its domestic market was eight times larger than before
[C] the war had destroyed the economies of most potential competitors
[D] the unparalleled size of its workforce had given an impetus to its economy

段落科学的阅读方法

如何读文章(or rather,把握文章)

 

 

 

1、统一性(一致性)(Unity)

(1)主题句(topic sentence à supporting paragraphs/sentences/details)

(2)关键词重复或重现(key words or terms)

举例:space exploration / study / research / project / program

      technological progress / solution / proposal / changes /advances

(3)(完形、阅读)难题:善于多联系主题(top-down)

2、连贯性(Coherence)

(1)宏观:全文展开模式(即全文的套路pattern)

     a. 记叙/描述说明(Narration and description)

b. 一般→具体(立论/驳论)

c. 具体→一般:

引子开头;提出问题(现象)→分析问题(原因)(→解决问题)

d.     对比型套路(Compare and contrast)

e.     并列展开模式:

(2)微观:句子与句子、段落与段落之间的逻辑关系(起承转合);

           有时还要善于自觉揣摩隐含的逻辑关系。

正确答案往往是段落重复两次以上的话题词

People in earlier eras were surrounded by reminders of misery. They worked until exhausted, lived with few protections and died young. In the West, before mass communication and literacy, the most powerful mass medium was the church, which reminded worshippers that their souls were in peril and that they would someday be meat for worms. Given all this, they did not exactly need their art to be a bummer too.

 The word “bummer” most probably means something
       A. religious   B. unpleasant   C. soul  D. worms

 

精选文章:

               Text 1

Ask most people how they define the American Dream and chances are they’ll say, “Success.” The dream of individual opportunity has been home in American since Europeans discovered a “new world” in the Western Hemisphere. Early immigrants like Hector St. Jean de Crevecoeur praised highly the freedom and opportunity to be found in this new land. His glowing descriptions of a classless society where anyone could attain success through honesty and hard work fired the imaginations of many European readers: in Letters from an American Farmer (1782) he wrote. “We are all excited at the spirit of an industry which is unfettered (无拘无束的) and unrestrained, because each person works for himself … We have no princes, for whom we toil (干苦力活),starve, and bleed: we are the most perfect society now existing in the world.” The promise of a land where “the rewards of a man’s industry follow with equal steps the progress of his labor” drew poor immigrants from Europe and fueled national expansion into the western territories.

Our national mythology (神化) is full of illustration the American success story. There’s Benjamin Franklin, the very model of the self-educated, self-made man, who rose from modest origins to become a well-known scientist, philosopher, and statesman. In the nineteenth century, Horatio Alger, a writer of fiction for young boys, became American’s best-selling author with rags-to-riches tales. The notion of success haunts us: we spend million every year reading about the rich and famous, learning how to “make a fortune in real estate with no money down,” and “dressing for success.” The myth of success has even invaded our personal relationships: today it’s as important to be “successful” in marriage or parenthoods as it is to come out on top in business.

But dreams easily turn into nightmares. Every American who hopes to “make it” also knows the fear of failure, because the myth of success inevitably implies comparison between the haves and the have-nots, the stars and the anonymous crowd. Under pressure of the myth, we become indulged in status symbols: we try to live in the “right” neighborhoods, wear the “right” clothes, eat the “right” foods. These symbols of distinction assure us and others that we believe strongly in the fundamental equality of all, yet strive as hard as we can to separate ourselves from our fellow citizens.

1. What is the essence of the American Dream according to Crevecoeur?

A) People are free to develop their power of imagination.

B) People who are honest and work hard can succeed.

C) People are free from exploitation and oppression.

D) People can fully enjoy individual freedom.

 

2.By saying “the rewards of a man’s industry follow with equal steps the progress of his labor” (Line 10, Para. 1), the author means __________ .

A) the more diligent one is, the bigger his returns

B) laborious work ensures the growth of an industry

C) a man’s business should be developed step by step

D) a company’s success depends on its employees’ hard work

 

3. The characters described in Horatio Alger’s novels are people who _______.

A) succeed in real estate investment

B) earned enormous fortunes by chances

C) became wealthy after starting life very poor

D) became famous despite their modest origins

 

4. It can be inferred from the last sentence of the second paragraph that _________.

A) business success often contributes to a successful marriage

B) Americans wish to succeed in every aspect of life

C) good personal relationships lead to business success

D) successful business people provide good care for their children

 

5. What is the paradox of American culture according to the author?

A) The American road to success is full of nightmares.

B) Status symbols are not a real indicator of a person’s wealth.

C) The American Dream is nothing but an empty dream.

D) What Americans strive after often contradicts their beliefs

Text 2

  The early retirement of experienced workers is seriously harming the U.S. economy, according to a new report from the Hudson Institute, a public policy research organization. Currently, many older experienced workers retire at an early age. According to the recently issued statistics, 79 percent of qualified workers begin collecting retirement benefits at age 62; if that trend continues, there will be a labor shortage that will hinder the economic growth in the twenty-first century.

  Older Americans constitute an increasing proportion of the population, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, and the population of those over age 65 will grow by 60% between 2001 and 2020. During the same period, the group aged 18 to 44 will increase by only 4%. Keeping older skilled workers employed, even part time, would increase U.S. economic output and strengthen the tax base; but without significant policy reforms, massive early retirement among baby boomers seems more likely.

  Retirement at age 62 is an economically rational decision today. Social Security and Medicaid earnings limits and tax penalties subject our most experienced workers to marginal tax rates as high as 67%. Social Security formulas encourage early retirement. Although incomes usually rise with additional years of work, any pay increases after the 35-year mark result in higher social Security taxes but only small increases in benefits.

  Hudson Institute researchers believe that federal tax and benefit policies are at fault and reforms are urgently needed, but they disagree with the popular proposal that much older Americans will have to work because Social Security will not support them and that baby boomers are not saving enough for retirement. According to the increase in 401 (k) and Keogh retirement plans, the ongoing stock market on Wall Street, and the likelihood of large inheritances, there is evidence that baby boomers will reach age 65 with greater financial assets than previous generations.

  The Hudson institute advocates reforming government policies that now discourage work and savings, especially for older worker. Among the report’s recommendations: Tax half of all Social Security benefits, regardless of other income; provide 8% larger benefits for each year beyond 65; and permit workers nearing retirement to negotiate compensation packages that may include a lower salary but with greater healthcare benefits. However, it may take real and fruitful planning to find the right solution to the early retirement of older experienced workers; any measures taken must be allowed to prolong the serviceability of older experienced workers rather than reforming policies alone.

 1.According to Hudson Institute researchers, the effect of the early retirement of qualified workers in the U.S. economy is

  [A] constructive. [B] significant. [C] inconclusive. [D]unreasonable.

 

2.The older experienced workers in America tend to retire early because their prolonged service may

  [A] do harm to younger generations. [B] end up with few or no profits.

  [C] be resulted by tax penalties. [D] damage social security formulas.

 

3.The second paragraph is written chiefly to show that

  [A] there will be an acute labor shortage in the near future.

  [B] baby-boomers contribute much to the US economic output.

  [C] government policies concerning older people are out-dated.

  [D] older workers are enthusiastic about collecting social benefits.

 

4.When mentioning “the ongoing stock market on Wall Street”, the writer

  [A] is calling attention to the rights to which baby-boomers are entitled.

  [B] is calling for the government to take measures against labor shortage.

  [C] is opposing to a notion about experienced workers’ early retirement.

  [D] is justifying the ineffectiveness of federal tax and benefit policies.

 

5.Towards the issue, what the writer is most concerned about will be

  [A] to advocate radically reforming government policies.

  [B] to take into account the benefits upon retirement.

  [C] to put in practice what Hudson researchers believe in.

[D] to prolong the practicability of older experienced employees.

Text 3

When we worry about who might be spying on our private lives, we usually think about the Federal agents. But the private sector outdoes the government every time. It's Linda Tripp, not the FBI, who is facing charges under Maryland's laws against secret telephone taping. It's our banks, not the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), that pass our private financial data to telemarketing firms.
  Consumer activists are pressing Congress for better privacy laws without much result so far. The legislators lean toward letting business people track our financial habits virtually at will. As an example of what's going on, consider U.S. Bancorp, which was recently sued for deceptive practices by the state of Minnesota. According to the lawsuit, the bank supplied a telemarketer called MemberWorks with sensitive customer data such as names, phone numbers, bank-account and credit-card numbers, Social Security numbers, account balances and credit limits.
   With these customer lists in hand, MemberWorks started dialing for dollars - selling dental plans, videogames, computer software and other products and services. Customers who accepted a "free trial offer" had, 30 days to cancel. If the deadline passed, they were charged automatically through their bank or credit-card accounts. U.S. Bancorp collected a share of the revenues. Customers were doubly deceived, the lawsuit claims. They didn't know that the bank was giving account numbers to MemberWorks. And if customers asked, they were led to think the answer was no.
  The state sued MemberWorks separately for deceptive selling. The company defends that it did anything wrong. For its part, U.S. Bancorp settled without admitting any mistakes. But it agreed to stop exposing its customers to non-financial products sold by outside firms. A few top banks decided to do the same. Many other banks will still do business with MemberWorks and similar firms.
  And banks will still be stealing data from your account in order to sell you financial products, including things of little value, such as credit insurance and credit-card protection plans. You have almost no protection from businesses that use your personal accounts for profit. For example, no federal law shields "transaction and experience" information - mainly the details of your bank and credit-card accounts. Social Security numbers are for sale by private firms. They've generally agreed not to sell to the public. But to businesses, the numbers are an open book. Self-regulation doesn't work. A firm might publish a privacy-protection policy, but who enforces it?
  Take U.S. Bancorp again. Customers were told, in writing, that "all personal information you supply to us will be considered confidential." Then it sold your data to MemberWorks. The bank even claims that it doesn't "sell" your data at all. It merely "shares" it and reaps a profit. Now you know.
1. Contrary to popular belief, the author finds that spying on people's privacy        .
A) is mainly carried out by means of secret taping
B) has been intensified with the help of the IRS
C) is practiced exclusively by the FBI
D) is more prevalent in business circles

2. We know from paragraph 2 that        .
A) legislators are acting to pass a law to provide better privacy protection
B) most states are turning a blind eye to the deceptive practices of private businesses
C) the state of Minnesota is considering drawing up laws to protect private information
D) lawmakers are inclined to give a free hand to businesses to inquire into customers' buying habits

3. When the "free trial" deadline is over, you'll be charged without notice for a product or service if
A) you fail to cancel it within the specified period
B) you happen to reveal your credit card number
C) you find the product or service unsatisfactory
D) you fail to apply for extension of the deadline

4. Businesses do not regard information concerning personal bank accounts as private because
A) its revelation will do no harm to consumers under the current protection policy
B) it is considered "transaction and experience" information unprotected by law
C) it has always been considered an open secret by the general public
D) its sale can be brought under control through self-regulation
 

5. We can infer from the passage that
A) banks will have to change their ways of doing business
B) privacy protection laws will soon be enforced
C) consumers' privacy will continue to be invaded
D) "free trial" practice will eventually be banned

Text 4

(1)In recent years, railroads have been combining with each other, merging into super systems, causing heightened concerns about monopoly. As recently as 1995,the top four railroads accounted for under 70 percent of the total ton-miles moved by rails. Next year, after a series of mergers is completed, just four railroads will control well over 90 percent of all the freight moved by major rail carriers.

  (2)Supporters of the new super systems argue that these mergers will allow for substantial cost reductions and better coordinated service. Any threat of monopoly, they argue, is removed by fierce competition from trucks. But many shippers complain that for heavy bulk commodities traveling long distances, such as coal, chemicals, and grain, trucking is too costly and the railroads therefore have them by the throat.

  (3)The vast consolidation within the rail industry means that most shippers are served by only one rail company. Railroads typically charge such “captive” shippers 20 to 30 percent more than they do when another railroad is competing for the business. Shippers who feel they are being overcharged have the right to appeal to the federal government's Surface Transportation Board for rate relief, but the process is expensive, time consuming, and will work only in truly extreme cases.

(4)Railroads justify rate discrimination against captive shippers on the grounds that in the long run it reduces everyone's cost. If railroads charged all customers the same average rate, they argue, shippers who have the option of switching to trucks or other forms of transportation would do so, leaving remaining customers to shoulder the cost of keeping up the line. It's theory to which many economists subscribe, but in practice it often leaves railroads in the position of determining which companies will flourish and which will fail.“ Do we really want railroads to be the arbiters of who wins and who loses in the marketplace?” asks Martin Bercovici, a Washington lawyer who frequently represents shipper.

(5)Many captive shippers also worry they will soon be his with a round of huge rate increases. The railroad industry as a whole, despite its brightening fortuning fortunes. still does not earn enough to cover the cost of the capital it must invest to keep up with its surging traffic. Yet railroads continue to borrow billions to acquire one another, with Wall Street cheering them on. Consider the .2 billion bid by Norfolk Southern and CSX to acquire Conrail this year. Conrail's net railway operating income in 1996 was just million, less than half of the carrying costs of the transaction. Who's going to pay for the rest of the bill? Many captive shippers fear that they will, as Norfolk Southern and CSX increase their grip on the market.

  1.According to those who support mergers railway monopoly is unlikely because

  A. cost reduction is based on competition.

  B. services call for cross-trade coordination.

  C. outside competitors will continue to exist.

  D. shippers will have the railway by the throat.

  

2. What is many captive shippers' attitude towards the consolidation in the rail industry?

  A. Indifferent.

  B. Supportive.

  C. Indignant.

  D. Apprehensive.

 

3.It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that

  A. shippers will be charged less without a rival railroad.

  B. there will soon be only one railroad company nationwide.

  C. overcharged shippers are unlikely to appeal for rate relief.

  D. a government board ensures fair play in railway business.

 

4.The word“arbiters”(line 7,paragraph 4)most probably refers to those

  A. who work as coordinators.

  B. who function as judges.

  C. who supervise transactions.

  D. who determine the price.

 

5.According to the text, the cost increase in the rail industry is mainly caused by

  A. the continuing acquisition.

  B. the growing traffic.

  C. the cheering Wall Street.

  D. the shrinking market.

 

Text 5

  The most unbelievable disasters facing the worldwide airline industry are not the terrible influences of terrorism, natural disasters, SARS and economic recession. Indeed,such blows as helping protect three state-owned carriers and forcing two American airlines into Chapter 11 bankruptcy will divert attention from the true weaknesses of aviation. As in the crisis that appeared in the first Gulf war, many airlines hope that traffic will soon bounce back, and a few low-profit years will be followed by fuller planes, happier passengers and a return to profitability. Yet the industry's serious problems are deeper—and tougher—than what we have expected.

As the centenary of the first powered flight approaches in December, the industry it launched is still remarkably primitive. The car industry, created not long after the Wright Brothers made history, is now a global industry dominated by a dozen firms, at least half of which make good profits. Yet commercial aviation consists of 267 international carriers and another 500-plus domestic ones. The world's biggest carrier, American Airlines, has barely 7% of the global market, whereas the world's biggest carmaker, General Motors, has (with its associated firms) about a quarter of the world's automobile market.

Aviation has been incompletely deregulated, and in only two markets: America and Europe. Everywhere else deals between governments dictate who flies under what rules. These aim to preserve state-owned national flag-carriers, run for prestige rather than profit. And numerous restrictions on foreign ownership impede cross-border airline mergers.

In America, the big network carriers face difficulties to exit, which have kept their route networks too large. Trade unions resisting job cuts and Congressmen opposing route closures in their territory conspire to prevent change. In Europe, liberalization is limited by bilateral deals that prevent, for instance, British Airways (BA) flying to America from Frankfurt or Paris, or Lufthansa offering transatlantic flights from London's Heathrow. To use the car industry analogy, it is as if only Renaults were allowed to drive on French motorways.

In airlines, the optimists are those who think that things are now so bad that the industry has no option but to evolve. Frederick Reid, president of Delta Air Lines, said earlier this year that events since the September 11th attacks are the equivalent of a meteor strike, changing the climate, creating a sort of nuclear winter and leading to a “compressed evolutionary cycle”. So how, looking on the bright side, might the industry look after five years of accelerated development?

 1. According to the author, the disadvantages of aviation industry _________________.

  A. are the effects of various disasters

B. are not fully and profoundly recognized

C. are helping protect three state-owned carriers

  D. are followed by more passengers and good profitability.

 2. One of the facts that reflect the primitiveness of airline industry is ________________.

  A. its history is much longer than that of car industry

  B. it is composed of international and domestic carriers

  C. its market is divided by many a relatively small carrier

  D. it is still an industry of comparatively low profits

 3. What does the author mean by “ Aviation has been incompletely deregulated,”( para.3) ?

  A. Governmental restrictions are still imposed on aviation industry in many areas.

  B. Governments help establish rules for aviation industry only in America and Europe.

  C. Some countries hope to help their national carriers keep up their national reputation.

  D. Many countries discourage merger plans between foreign and domestic carriers.

 4. It can be inferred from the passage that ____________________.

  A. free competition may help solve the problems confronting aviation industry

  B. problems in America are more of a political nature than that in Europe

  C. car industry should exert a more powerful influence on aviation industry

  D. Problems can solved quickly if we can take successful reforms

5. According to Fredrick Reid, the aviation industry ______________________.

  A. is facing a very serious situation

  B. will confront a difficult evolution

  C. has no way out of the present difficulty

    D. will experience a radical reform

Text 6

While still catching-up to men in some spheres of modern life, women appear to be way ahead in at least one undesirable category. “Women are particularly susceptible to developing depression and anxiety disorders in response to stress compared to men.” according to Dr. Yehuda, chief psychiatrist at New York’s Veteran’s Administration Hospital.

Studies of both animals and humans have shown that sex hormones somehow affect the stress response, causing females under stress to produce more of the trigger chemicals than do males under the same conditions. In several of the studies, when stressed-out female rats had their ovaries (the female reproductive organs) removed, their chemical responses became equal to those of the males.

Adding to a woman’s increased dose of stress chemicals, are her increased “opportunities” for stress. “It’s not necessarily that women don’t cope as well. It’s just that they have so much more to cope with.” says Dr. Yehuda. “Their capacity for tolerating stress may even be greater than men’s,” she observes, “it’s just that they’re dealing with so many more things that they become worn out from it more visibly and sooner.”

Dr. Yehuda notes another difference between the sexes. “I think that the kinds of things that women are exposed to tend to be in a chronic or repeated nature. Men go to war and are exposed to combat stress. Men are exposed to more acts of random physical violence. The kinds of interpersonal violence that women are exposed to tend to be in domestic situations, by, unfortunately, parents or other family members, and they tend not to be one-shot deals. The wear-and-tear that comes from these longer relationships can be quite devastating.”

Adeline Alvarez married at 18 and gave birth to a son, but was determined to finish college. “I struggled a lot to get the college degree. I was living in so much frustration that that was my escape, to go to school, and get ahead and do better.” Later, her marriage ended and she became a single mother. “It’s the hardest thing to take care of a teenager, have a job, pay the rent, pay the car payment, and pay the debt. I lived from paycheck to paycheck.”

Not everyone experiences the kinds of severe chronic stresses Alvarez describes. But most women today are coping with a lot of obligations, with few breaks, and feeling the strain. Alvarez’s experience demonstrates the importance of finding ways to diffuse stress before it threatens your health and your ability to function.

21. Which of the following is true according to the first two paragraphs?

A. Women are biologically more vulnerable to stress.

B. Women are still suffering much stress caused by men.

C. Women are more experienced than men in coping with stress.

D. Men and women show different inclinations when faced with stress.

 

22. Dr. Ychuda’s research suggests that women

A. need extra doses of chemicals to handle stress.

B. have limited capacity for tolerating stress.

C. are more capable of avoiding stress.

D. are exposed to more stress.

 

23. According to Paragraph 4, the stress women confront tends to be

A. domestic and temporary.

B. irregular and violent.

C. durable and frequent.

D. trivial and random.

 

24. The sentence “I lived from paycheck to paycheck.” (Line 6, Para. 5) shows that

A. Alvarez cared about nothing but making money.

B. Alvarez’s salary barely covered her household expenses.

C. Alvarez got paychecks from different jobs.

D. Alvarez paid practically everything by check.

 

25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

A. Strain of Stress: No Way Out?

B. Response to Stress: Gender Difference

C. Stress Analysis: What Chemicals Say?

D. Gender Inequality: Women Under Stress

 

Text 7

In the early 1960s Wilt Chamberlain was one of only three players in the National Basketball Association listed at over seven feet. If he had played last season, however, he would have been one of 42. The bodies playing major professional sports have changed dramatically over the years, and managers have been more than willing to adjust team uniforms to fit the growing numbers of bigger, longer frames.

The trend in sports, though, may be obscuring an unrecognized reality: Americans have generally stopped growing. Though typically about two inches taller now than 140 years ago, today's people--especially those born to families who have lived in the U.S. for many generations--apparently reached their limit in the early 1960s. And they aren't likely to get any taller. "In the general population today, at this genetic, environmental level, we've pretty much gone as far as we can go," says anthropologist William Cameron Chumlea of Wright State University.

Growth, which rarely continues beyond the age of 20, demands calories and nutrients--notably, protein--to feed expanding tissues. At the start of the 20th century, under-nutrition and childhood infections got in the way. But as diet and health improved, children and adolescents have, on average, increased in height by about an inch and a half every 20 years, a pattern known as the secular trend in height. Yet according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, average height--5'9" for men, 5'4" for women--hasn't really changed since 1960.

Genetically speaking, there are advantages to avoiding substantial height. During childbirth, larger babies have more difficulty passing through the birth canal. Moreover, even though humans have been upright for millions of years, our feet and back continue to struggle with bipedal posture and cannot easily withstand repeated strain inflicted by oversize limbs. "There are some real constraints that are set by the genetic architecture of the individual organism," says anthropologist William Leonard of Northwestern University.

Genetic maximums can change, but don't expect this to happen soon. Claire C. Gordon, senior anthropologist at the Army Research Center in Natick, Mass., ensures that 90 percent of the uniforms and workstations fit recruits without alteration. She says that, unlike those for basketball, the length of military uniforms has not changed for some time. And if you need to predict human height in the near future to design a piece of equipment, Gordon says that by and large, "you could use today's data and feel fairly confident."

31. Wilt Chamberlain is cited as an example to

A. illustrate the change of height of NBA players.

B. show the popularity of NBA players in the USA.

C. compare different generations of NBA players.

D. assess the achievements of famous NBA players.

 

32. Which of the following plays a key role in body growth according to the text?

A. Genetic modification.

B. Natural environment.

C. Living standards.

D. Daily exercise.

 

33. On which of the following statement would the author most probably agree?

A. Non-Americans add to the average height of the nation.

B. Human height is conditioned by the upright posture.

C. Americans are the tallest on average in the world.

D. Large babies tend to become taller in adulthood.

 

34. We learn form the last paragraph that in the near future

A. the garment industry will reconsider the uniform size.

B. the design of military uniforms will remain unchanged.

C. genetic testing will be employed in selecting sportsmen.

D. the existing data of human height will still be applicable.

 

35. The text intends to tell us that

A. the change of human height follows a cyclic pattern.

B. human height is becoming even more predictable.

C. Americans have reached their genetic growth limit.

D. the genetic pattern of Americans has altered.

Text 8

(1)Stratford-on-Avon, as we all know, has only one industry-----William Shakespeare-----but there are two distinctly separate and increasingly hostile branches. There is the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC),  which presents superb productions of the plays at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre on the Avon. And there are the townsfolk who largely live off the tourists who come, not to see the plays, but to look at Anne Hathaway’s Cottage, Shakespeare’s birthplace and the other sights.

(2) The worthy residents of Stratford doubt that the theatre adds a penny to their revenue. They frankly dislike the RSC’s actors, them with their long hair and beards and sandals and noisiness. It’s all deliciously ironic when you consider that Shakespeare, who earns their living, was himself an actor (with a beard) and did his share of noise-making.

(3)The tourist streams are not entirely separate. The sightseers who come by bus--- and often take in Warwick Castle and Blenheim Palace on the side----don’t usually see the plays, and some of them are even surprised to find a theatre in Stratford. However, the playgoers do manage a little sight-seeing along with their playgoing. It is the playgoers, the RSC contends, who bring in much of the town’s revenue because they spend the night (some of them four or five nights) pouring cash into the hotels and restaurants. The sightseers can take in everything and get out of town by nightfall.

(4)The townsfolk don’t see it this way and local council does not contribute directly to the subsidy of the Royal Shakespeare Company. Stratford cries poor traditionally. Nevertheless every hotel in town seems to be adding a new wing or cocktail lounge. Hilton is building its own hotel there, which you may be sure will be decorated with Hamlet Hamburger Bars, the Lear Lounge, the Banquo Banqueting Room, and so forth, and will be very expensive.

(5)Anyway, the townsfolk can’t understand why the Royal Shakespeare Company needs a subsidy. (The theatre has broken attendance records for three years in a row. Last year its 1,431 seats were 94 percent occupied all year long and this year they’ll do better.) The reason, of course, is that costs have rocketed and ticket prices have stayed low.

(6)It would be a shame to raise prices too much because it would drive away the young people who are Stratford’s most attractive clientele. They come entirely for the plays, not the sights. They all seem to look alike (though they come from all over)---lean, pointed, dedicated faces, wearing jeans and sandals, eating their buns and bedding down for the night on the flagstones outside the theatre to buy the 20 seats and 80 standing--room tickets held for the sleepers and sold to them when the box office opens at 10:30 a.m.

26. From the first two paras , we learn that

A. the townsfolk deny the RSC ’ s contribution to the town’s revenue

B. the actors of the RSC imitate Shakespeare on and off stage

C. the two branches of the RSC are not on good terms

D. the townsfolk earn little from tourism

  

27. It can be inferred from Para 3 that

A. the sightseers cannot visit the Castle and the Palace separately

B. the playgoers spend more money than the sightseers

C. the sightseers do more shopping than the playgoers

D. the playgoers go to no other places in town than the theater

 

28. By saying “Stratford cries poor traditionally” (Line 2-3, Paragraph 4), the author implies that

A. Stratford cannot afford the expansion projects

B. Stratford has long been in financial difficulties

C. the town is not really short of money

D. the townsfolk used to be poorly paid

 

29. According to the townsfolk, the RSC deserves no subsidy because

A. ticket prices can be raised to cover the spending

B. the company is financially ill-managed

C. the behavior of the actors is not socially acceptable

D. the theatre attendance is on the rise

 

30. From the text we can conclude that the author

A. is supportive of both sides

B. favors the townsfolk’s view

C. takes a detached attitude

D. is sympathetic to RSC

选词填空

 Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.

  When Roberto Feliz came to the USA from the Dominican Republic, he knew only a few words of English .Education soon became a 47. “I couldn’t understand anything,” he said. He 48 from his teachers, came home in tears , and thought about dropping out.

  Then Mrs. Malave , a bilingual educator, began to work with him while teaching him math and science in his 49 Spanish.“She helped me stay smart while teaching me English ,”he said .Given the chance to demonstrate his ability, he 50 confidence and began to succeed in school.

  Today, he is a 51 doctor, runs his own clinic ,and works with several hospitals .Every day ,he uses the language and academic skills he 52 through bilingual education to treat his patients.

  Roberto’s story is just one of 53 success stories. Research has shown that bilingual education is the most 54 way both to teach children English and ensure that they succeed academically. In Arizona and Texas, bilingual students 55 outperform their peers in monolingual programs. Calexico, Calif. , implemented bilingual education, and now has dropout rates that are less than half the state average and college 56 rates of more than 90%.In E1 Paso ,bilingual education programs have helped raise student scores from the lowest in Texas to among the highest in the nation.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

A) wonder B) acquired C) consistently D) regained E) nightmare F) native G) acceptance H)effective I)hid J)prominent K)decent L)countless M)recalled N)breakthrough O) automatically

六级冲刺作文

语言层面的修养

1如何把句子从四个单词写到四十个单词

低级的写法:Cooperation is good.

钻石的写法: what impresses me strikingly in the picture is that cooperation is crucial and essential to our individual, family and social harmony and development because if we cooperate with each other, we can overcome our defects and put our advantages into full play.

(2)举例子怎么说:

低级的写法:For example

钻石的写法:To account for the above mentioned topic, I can think of no better illustrations to prove it than the cases as mentioned below.

 (3) 有以下几个原因怎么说?

低级的写法

钻石的写法:

(4)正如图画所显示怎么说?

低级的写法

钻石的写法:

(5) 网恋这个现象很严重怎么说?

低级的写法

钻石的写法:

如何使用高分词汇和句型

 

 

普通词汇

高分词汇

about

as to

according to  

in the eyes of

affect

hinder

age   

era

aim

objective

and

along with / as well as

and so on

the like

appear

mushroom / arise

apply

put into practice

ask

consult

aspect

sphere

attach

enclose

attract

tempt

 

批判危害性的框架.

第一段

(1)  There is no denying that recent few years has witnessed a deteriorating phenomenon of( A )which has induced heightened concerns.

(2) Undoubtedly, the problem of A as the focus of public concern mainly results from its harmful influence on our individual, familial and social development.

第二段

(1) As for the issue of ), its situation has been becoming increasingly unsatisfactory in spite of the fact that most people are still ignorant of the problems.

 (2) To begin with,   in our schools and public places can no longer be ignored.

(3) Over these years, the people’s living standards have greatly improved, but the development of our civilization seems to fall far behind.

No matter where you live and work,   B and C   are easily spotted.

(4)In addition, nothing is as destructive to our physical and mental health and even our moral values more than    .

(5) No better illustration of this idea can be thought than the cases mentioned below.

(6)According to a survey made by    Daily, 83% of young people who have ever experienced the situation of    will severely accuse the phenomenon and call for immediate solutions

 第三段 

(1)From what have been discussed above, what really accounts is not the danger of     , but how we can prevent it from getting worse.

(2) On the one hand, it is urgent for us to strengthen the enforcement of laws and regulations to eliminate A.

(3) On the other hand, a publicizing educational campaign should be carried out to enhance people’s awareness about the harmfulness of A.

 

预测范文一 作业负担过重

第一段

(1)  There is no denying that recent few years has witnessed a deteriorating phenomenon of( A )which has induced heightened concerns.

(2) Undoubtedly, the problem of A as the focus of public concern mainly results from its harmful influence on our individual, familial and social development.

第二段

(1) As for the issue of ), its situation has been becoming increasingly unsatisfactory in spite of the fact that most people are still ignorant of the problems.

 (2) To begin with,   in our schools and public places can no longer be ignored.

(3) Over these years, the people’s living standards have greatly improved, but the development of our civilization seems to fall far behind.

No matter where you live and work,   B and C   are easily spotted.

(4)In addition, nothing is as destructive to our physical and mental health and even our moral values more than    .

(5) No better illustration of this idea can be thought than the cases mentioned below.

(6)According to a survey made by    Daily, 83% of young people who have ever experienced the situation of    will severely accuse the phenomenon and call for immediate solutions

 第三段 

(1)From what have been discussed above, what really accounts is not the danger of     , but how we can prevent it from getting worse.

(2) On the one hand, it is urgent for us to strengthen the enforcement of laws and regulations to eliminate A.

(3) On the other hand, a publicizing educational campaign should be carried out to enhance people’s awareness about the harmfulness of A.

预测范文二 道德问题

很多游人在游玩和照相,在天安门广场游玩时,在吐口香糖,乱扔烟头,废弃物

第一段

(1)  There is no denying that recent few years has witnessed a deteriorating phenomenon of( A )which has induced heightened concerns.

(2) Undoubtedly, the problem of A as the focus of public concern mainly results from its harmful influence on our individual, familial and social development.

第二段

(1) As for the issue of ), its situation has been becoming increasingly unsatisfactory in spite of the fact that most people are still ignorant of the problems.

 (2) To begin with,   in our schools and public places can no longer be ignored.

(3) Over these years, the people’s living standards have greatly improved, but the development of our civilization seems to fall far behind.

No matter where you live and work,   B and C   are easily spotted.

(4)In addition, nothing is as destructive to our physical and mental health and even our moral values more than    .

(5) No better illustration of this idea can be thought than the cases mentioned below.

(6)According to a survey made by    Daily, 83% of young people who have ever experienced the situation of    will severely accuse the phenomenon and call for immediate solutions

 第三段 

(1)From what have been discussed above, what really accounts is not the danger of     , but how we can prevent it from getting worse.

(2) On the one hand, it is urgent for us to strengthen the enforcement of laws and regulations to eliminate A.

(3) On the other hand, a publicizing educational campaign should be carried out to enhance people’s awareness about the harmfulness of A.

预测范文三  两个邻居个领着一只狗,狗在互相打招呼,而人却很冷漠
第一段

(1)  There is no denying that recent few years has witnessed a deteriorating phenomenon of( A )which has induced heightened concerns.

(2) Undoubtedly, the problem of A as the focus of public concern mainly results from its harmful influence on our individual, familial and social development.

第二段

(1) As for the issue of ), its situation has been becoming increasingly unsatisfactory in spite of the fact that most people are still ignorant of the problems.

 (2) To begin with,   in our schools and public places can no longer be ignored.

(3) Over these years, the people’s living standards have greatly improved, but the development of our civilization seems to fall far behind.

No matter where you live and work,   B and C   are easily spotted.

(4)In addition, nothing is as destructive to our physical and mental health and even our moral values more than    .

(5) No better illustration of this idea can be thought than the cases mentioned below.

(6)According to a survey made by    Daily, 83% of young people who have ever experienced the situation of    will severely accuse the phenomenon and call for immediate solutions

 第三段 

(1)From what have been discussed above, what really accounts is not the danger of     , but how we can prevent it from getting worse.

(2) On the one hand, it is urgent for us to strengthen the enforcement of laws and regulations to eliminate A.

(3) On the other hand, a publicizing educational campaign should be carried out to enhance people’s awareness about the harmfulness of A.

预测范文四 不健康的生活方式,比如吃快餐,抽烟,喝酒,熬夜,暴饮暴食问题

第一段

(1)  There is no denying that recent few years has witnessed a deteriorating phenomenon of( A )which has induced heightened concerns.

(2) Undoubtedly, the problem of A as the focus of public concern mainly results from its harmful influence on our individual, familial and social development.

第二段

(1) As for the issue of ), its situation has been becoming increasingly unsatisfactory in spite of the fact that most people are still ignorant of the problems.

 (2) To begin with,   in our schools and public places can no longer be ignored.

(3) Over these years, the people’s living standards have greatly improved, but the development of our civilization seems to fall far behind.

No matter where you live and work,   B and C   are easily spotted.

(4)In addition, nothing is as destructive to our physical and mental health and even our moral values more than    .

(5) No better illustration of this idea can be thought than the cases mentioned below.

(6)According to a survey made by    Daily, 83% of young people who have ever experienced the situation of    will severely accuse the phenomenon and call for immediate solutions

 第三段 

(1)From what have been discussed above, what really accounts is not the danger of     , but how we can prevent it from getting worse.

(2) On the one hand, it is urgent for us to strengthen the enforcement of laws and regulations to eliminate A.

(3) On the other hand, a publicizing educational campaign should be carried out to enhance people’s awareness about the harmfulness of A.

 

预测范文五,浪费的问题,浪费食堂的饭菜,金钱,时间,从事很多和学习无关的事情

第一段

(1)  There is no denying that recent few years has witnessed a deteriorating phenomenon of( A )which has induced heightened concerns.

(2) Undoubtedly, the problem of A as the focus of public concern mainly results from its harmful influence on our individual, familial and social development.

第二段

(1) As for the issue of ), its situation has been becoming increasingly unsatisfactory in spite of the fact that most people are still ignorant of the problems.

 (2) To begin with,   in our schools and public places can no longer be ignored.

(3) Over these years, the people’s living standards have greatly improved, but the development of our civilization seems to fall far behind.

No matter where you live and work,   B and C   are easily spotted.

(4)In addition, nothing is as destructive to our physical and mental health and even our moral values more than    .

(5) No better illustration of this idea can be thought than the cases mentioned below.

(6)According to a survey made by    Daily, 83% of young people who have ever experienced the situation of    will severely accuse the phenomenon and call for immediate solutions

 第三段 

(1)From what have been discussed above, what really accounts is not the danger of     , but how we can prevent it from getting worse.

(2) On the one hand, it is urgent for us to strengthen the enforcement of laws and regulations to eliminate A.

(3) On the other hand, a publicizing educational campaign should be carried out to enhance people’s awareness about the harmfulness of A.

积极有利型的文章

文章以团队精神为例子

第一段:

(1) There is no denying that such an image draws attention to the fact that people tend to be puzzled by various challenges and competition and are more likely to be deterred by present difficulties.

(4) If one was to                          , one could make wise decisions, as well as have a clearer sense of how to solve any given problem.

 

第二段:

 (1)As is universally acknowledged, team work  is momentous (重要的) and fundamental to our individual, family and social survival and prosperity.

(2) To begin with, A can not only accelerate individuals’ development but also can help us earn other people’s appreciations and respects.

(3) What’s more, through continuously promoting the social productivity, gradually enriching human material and spiritual wealth, A eventually brings economic prosperity and social harmony.

(4) No better illustration of this idea can be thought than the example mentioned below.

(5)A person who is assigned various jobs along the production lines such as designing a model, assembling the accessories and promoting the sales will make a mess just because no one can be proficient in all the things.

第三段:

(1)From what have been discussed above, it admits of no doubt that in doing things whether great or small there are more or less difficulties, it is much better for one to involve yourself into A.

(2) When we are benefiting from A, we shall also do our utmost to maintain its vitality to ensure ourselves a brighter future.

(3)On the one hand, we should be sensible to be receptive to other people’s opinions and benefits.

(4)On the other hand, it is demanding for us to be always helpful and honest to other people.

重点预测的文章:

一.   对别人真诚,无私奉献  

Genuineness and devotion are rewarding

第一段:

(1) There is no denying that such an image draws attention to the fact that people tend to be puzzled by various challenges and competition and are more likely to be deterred by present difficulties.

(4) If one was to                          , one could make wise decisions, as well as have a clearer sense of how to solve any given problem.

第二段:      

 (1)As is universally acknowledged, team work  is momentous (重要的) and fundamental to our individual, family and social survival and prosperity.

(2) To begin with, A can not only accelerate individuals’ development but also can help us earn other people’s appreciations and respects.

(3) What’s more, through continuously promoting the social productivity, gradually enriching human material and spiritual wealth, A eventually brings economic prosperity and social harmony.

(4) No better illustration of this idea can be thought than the example mentioned below.

(5)A person who              will make a mess just because     

第三段:

(1)From what have been discussed above, it admits of no doubt that in doing things whether great or small there are more or less difficulties, it is much better for one to involve yourself into A.

(2) When we are benefiting from A, we shall also do our utmost to maintain its vitality to ensure ourselves a brighter future.

(3)On the one hand, we should be sensible to be receptive to other people’s opinions and benefits.

(4)On the other hand, it is demanding for us to be always helpful and honest to other people.

二. 长远规划,不要光看眼前的利益

第一段:

(1) There is no denying that such an image draws attention to the fact that people tend to be puzzled by various challenges and competition and are more likely to be deterred by present difficulties.

(4) If one was to                          , one could make wise decisions, as well as have a clearer sense of how to solve any given problem.

第二段:      

 (1)As is universally acknowledged, team work  is momentous (重要的) and fundamental to our individual, family and social survival and prosperity.

(2) To begin with, A can not only accelerate individuals’ development but also can help us earn other people’s appreciations and respects.

(3) What’s more, through continuously promoting the social productivity, gradually enriching human material and spiritual wealth, A eventually brings economic prosperity and social harmony.

(4) No better illustration of this idea can be thought than the example mentioned below.

(5)A person who              will make a mess just because     

第三段:

(1)From what have been discussed above, it admits of no doubt that in doing things whether great or small there are more or less difficulties, it is much better for one to involve yourself into A.

(2) When we are benefiting from A, we shall also do our utmost to maintain its vitality to ensure ourselves a brighter future.

(3)On the one hand, we should be sensible to be receptive to other people’s opinions and benefits.

(4)On the other hand, it is demanding for us to be always helpful and honest to other people.

三.坚持不懈的重要性

第一段:

(1) There is no denying that such an image draws attention to the fact that people tend to be puzzled by various challenges and competition and are more likely to be deterred by present difficulties.

(4) If one was to                          , one could make wise decisions, as well as have a clearer sense of how to solve any given problem.

第二段:      

 (1)As is universally acknowledged, team work  is momentous (重要的) and fundamental to our individual, family and social survival and prosperity.

(2) To begin with, A can not only accelerate individuals’ development but also can help us earn other people’s appreciations and respects.

(3) What’s more, through continuously promoting the social productivity, gradually enriching human material and spiritual wealth, A eventually brings economic prosperity and social harmony.

(4) No better illustration of this idea can be thought than the example mentioned below.

(5)A person who              will make a mess just because     

第三段:

(1)From what have been discussed above, it admits of no doubt that in doing things whether great or small there are more or less difficulties, it is much better for one to involve yourself into A.

(2) When we are benefiting from A, we shall also do our utmost to maintain its vitality to ensure ourselves a brighter future.

(3)On the one hand, we should be sensible to be receptive to other people’s opinions and benefits.

(4)On the other hand, it is demanding for us to be always helpful and honest to other people.

四. 谦让,退一步海阔天空.

第一段:

(1) There is no denying that such an image draws attention to the fact that people tend to be puzzled by various challenges and competition and are more likely to be deterred by present difficulties.

(4) If one was to                          , one could make wise decisions, as well as have a clearer sense of how to solve any given problem.

第二段:      

 (1)As is universally acknowledged, team work  is momentous (重要的) and fundamental to our individual, family and social survival and prosperity.

(2) To begin with, A can not only accelerate individuals’ development but also can help us earn other people’s appreciations and respects.

(3) What’s more, through continuously promoting the social productivity, gradually enriching human material and spiritual wealth, A eventually brings economic prosperity and social harmony.

(4) No better illustration of this idea can be thought than the example mentioned below.

(5)A person who              will make a mess just because     

第三段:

(1)From what have been discussed above, it admits of no doubt that in doing things whether great or small there are more or less difficulties, it is much better for one to involve yourself into A.

(2) When we are benefiting from A, we shall also do our utmost to maintain its vitality to ensure ourselves a brighter future.

(3)On the one hand, we should be sensible to be receptive to other people’s opinions and benefits.

(4)On the other hand, it is demanding for us to be always helpful and honest to other people.

五.节约精神

 

第一段:

(1) There is no denying that such an image draws attention to the fact that people tend to be puzzled by various challenges and competition and are more likely to be deterred by present difficulties.

(4) If one was to                          , one could make wise decisions, as well as have a clearer sense of how to solve any given problem.

第二段:      

 (1)As is universally acknowledged, team work  is momentous (重要的) and fundamental to our individual, family and social survival and prosperity.

(2) To begin with, A can not only accelerate individuals’ development but also can help us earn other people’s appreciations and respects.

(3) What’s more, through continuously promoting the social productivity, gradually enriching human material and spiritual wealth, A eventually brings economic prosperity and social harmony.

(4) No better illustration of this idea can be thought than the example mentioned below.

(5)A person who              will make a mess just because     

第三段:

(1)From what have been discussed above, it admits of no doubt that in doing things whether great or small there are more or less difficulties, it is much better for one to involve yourself into A.

(2) When we are benefiting from A, we shall also do our utmost to maintain its vitality to ensure ourselves a brighter future.

(3)On the one hand, we should be sensible to be receptive to other people’s opinions and benefits.

(4)On the other hand, it is demanding for us to be always helpful and honest to other people.

 

六.刘翔的精神

第一段:

(1) There is no denying that such an image draws attention to the fact that people tend to be puzzled by various challenges and competition and are more likely to be deterred by present difficulties.

(4) If one was to                          , one could make wise decisions, as well as have a clearer sense of how to solve any given problem.

第二段:      

 (1)As is universally acknowledged, team work  is momentous (重要的) and fundamental to our individual, family and social survival and prosperity.

(2) To begin with, A can not only accelerate individuals’ development but also can help us earn other people’s appreciations and respects.

(3) What’s more, through continuously promoting the social productivity, gradually enriching human material and spiritual wealth, A eventually brings economic prosperity and social harmony.

(4) No better illustration of this idea can be thought than the example mentioned below.

(5)A person who              will make a mess just because     

第三段:

(1)From what have been discussed above, it admits of no doubt that in doing things whether great or small there are more or less difficulties, it is much better for one to involve yourself into A.

(2) When we are benefiting from A, we shall also do our utmost to maintain its vitality to ensure ourselves a brighter future.

(3)On the one hand, we should be sensible to be receptive to other people’s opinions and benefits.

(4)On the other hand, it is demanding for us to be always helpful and honest to other people.

六级写作终极预测其他文章

一、议论文部分练习题

(一) 问题解决型:

1. The Problems I have in My English Study

Outline: 1) 遇到了哪些问题

2) 产生这些问题的原因

3) 如何克服这些问题

2. Harmfulness of Fake Commodities  

Outline: 1) 假冒伪劣产品对厂家造成的损失

2) 假冒伪劣产品对消费者的危害

3) 如何打击假冒伪劣产品

3. Global Shortage of Fresh Water

Outline: 1) 人们以为水是取之不尽的(提示:雨水,河水,井水….)

2) 实际上淡水是非常紧缺的(提示:人口增加,工业用水增加,污染等)

3) 我们应该怎么办

4. How I Finance My College Education ?

Outline: 1) 上大学的费用(tuition and fees)可以通过多种途径解决

2) 哪种途径适合我(说明理由)

5. How to Solve the Problem of Heavy Traffic?

Outline: 1) 城市交通拥挤

2) 解决方案:(solution)

A. 建造 (lay down) 更多的道路   

优点:(1)降低街道拥挤程度  (2)加速车流(flow of traffic)

缺点:占地过多

B. 开辟 (open up) 更多的公共汽车线路

优点:减少自行车与小汽车

缺点:对部分人可能造成不方便

3) 结论:两者结合

 

(二) 积极有利型:

1. Foreign Investment

Outline: 1) 现在越来越多的外商来中国投资

2) 外商投资带来的好处

3) 怎样更好地吸引外资

2. Advantages of a Job Interview

Outline: 1) 现在找工作一般都要进行面试,通过面试,面试者(interviewer)和应试者(interviewee)可以相互了解情况

2) 面试者可以向应试者介绍情况,如工作性质、条件、待遇等

3) 应试者也有机会给对方留下一个好印象,如可以表达出自信心,可以介绍受教育背景、工作能力等

3. The Development of the West Regions

Outline: 1) The significance of developing western regions in China.

2) The reasons for their backwardness.

3) The prospects of such a project.

4. Advantages of a Five-Day Week

我国从五月一日开始实施五天工作制.请写出五天工作值得实施对社会、家庭和个人带来的好处。

 

(三) 利弊分析型:

1. On Private Cars ( Automobiles )

Outline: 1) The benefits the car has brought us

2)The problems it has caused us

3)Your comments

2. Internet---Two-edged Sword

Outline: 1) Internet的功绩

2) Internet的弊端

3) 你的看法

3. The Role of Migrant Workers.

4. China’s Access to WTO: Challenges and Opportunities

Outline: 1) The advantages

2) Disadvantages of China’s access to WTO

3) Your comments

5. Studying Abroad

Outline: 1) Advantages of Studying abroad

2) Disadvantages of studying abroad

3) Your opinion

 

(四)比较对照型;

1. Education: Examination-Orientation or Quality-Orientation?

Outline: 1) 应试教育的危害

2) 素质教育的必要性

3) 你的态度

2. Competition and Cooperation.

Outline: 1) The importance of cooperation

2) The importance of competition

3) The relationship between competition and cooperation

3. Developing Economy or Protecting the Environment?

Outline: 1) 经济发展的重要性

2) 保护环境的必要性

3) 你的观点

4. Why We Work

Outline: 1) Some people live to work.

2) Other people work to live.

3) Your opinion

5. Which is More Important, Wealth of Health?

Outline: 1) 有人认为财富比健康重要。

2) 有人认为健康比财富重要。

3) 你的看法。

6. Where to Live: In the City or the Country  

Outline: 1) Conveniences of the city

2) Attractions of the country

3) Disadvantages of both

一、议论文部分

(一) 问题解决型

1.                     The Problems I Have in My English Study

In my English study, I have many difficulties. The following are some of them:

My first difficulty is that my vocabulary is not large. As a result, I can not read fast and understand well. As I am approaching middle age, it is not so easy to keep many new words in mind quickly. The second difficulty I have is that I cannot write well. As I have been very busy with my work which really doesn't need any foreign language, I seldom have a chance to write something in English. The third difficulty is that my listening comprehension is not good enough. This is because I had little training in listening while I was at university.

To overcome these difficulties, I have worked out a plan. I plan to read one or two pages of English, such as China Daily, 21st Century English or simplified novels, in order to memorize the words on one hand and keep in touch with the current news on the other. I will try to keep a diary in English and practice writing at least twice a week. And finally I will try to listen to English tape every two or three days. I believe that so hard as I practice, I will be able to read, write and understand better.                                           (217 words)

 

2.               Harmfulness of Fake Commodities

Fake Commodities have almost found their way into every field. Compared with the genuine products, they have more attraction for the consumers because of their much lower prices. This, of course, causes great economic losses to the genuine-product manufacturers. Besides, as fake commodities are often of poor quality, they will damage the credibility of the genuine products.

Fake Commodities also cause much trouble to consumers. For example, if something goes wrong with the fake commodities, consumers can not enjoy the free post-sale services provided by the genuine-product manufacturers, which may bring about economic losses to consumers. Furthermore, fake commodities can be dangerous and sometimes even involve the lives of consumers. For example, once some consumers were reported to have died after drinking fake wine.

So fake commodities are a serious problem in our country which deserves attention from all angles. The legitimate producers should safeguard their legal rights by powerful precautions and, at the same time, try to improve their products and cut their prices so as to attract more consumers. The authorities should redouble their efforts to forbid the production and sale of fake commodities. Also, consumers should free themselves from the temptation by the cheaper fake commodities and not create any opportunities for them.            (206 words)

 

 

(二) 积极有利型

1.                          Foreign Investment

Thanks to the reform and open-door policy, more and more foreign businessmen have come to China to invest, building new factories, mines and other business enterprises, or enlarging and improving old ones.

Ours is a country of vast territory, rich in natural resources and labor force. Foreign investment can supplement the socialist market economy of our country. It has the advantages of importing foreign capital, technology, talents, advanced equipment and methods of management. Foreign investment can also help to explore the resources and make use of the labor force, thus bringing our strong points into full play.

To attract more foreign investment, we must maintain the country's political stability to bring about a good investment environment. Meanwhile we should carry out some good policies, which makes the foreign businessmen believe that to invest in China does pay.                                       (137 words)

 

2.                       Advantages of a Job Interview

Nowadays, it is a common practice for people to have an interview when they hunt for a job. Through a job interview both the interviewer and the interviewee can know a lot about each other and then make a sensible choice.

Job interviews have a lot of advantages. The interviewer can give the interviewee some relevant information. He can explain job requirements and introduce the benefits of his company or work unit offers, which may include, among many others, working conditions, holidays, and welfare.

At the same time, the interviewee has an opportunity to give the interviewer a good impression. He can show both his ability and his confidence. In a word, the interviewee can find a suitable job and the interviewer can find the right person if both of them make the best of a job interview.                              (138 words)

 

                                   (233 words)

 

 

(三) 利弊分析型

1                              On Private Cars ( Automobiles )

With the development of China’s economy, private cars become more and more popular. Private cars have been playing a vital part in our daily activities. On one hand, private cars provide the most convenient form of transportation. With a car, we can get around freely, without wasting a lot of time. On the other hand, the automobile industry provides jobs for countless workers.  

But, private cars, like anything else, have more than one face. With the increase of the number of private cars in China, they have given rise to a series of problems. They are responsible for a large proportion of air pollution, causing a lot of diseases to man, animals and plants. Traffic jams on busy roads delay us painfully every day. The consequences of all these are becoming even more serious.

As far as I am concerned, I think we should find ways to reduce these disadvantages so as to solve the problems of heavy traffic and air pollution. Only in this way can our life become more exciting and comfortable. (174 words )

 

2.                                  Internet -- Two-edged Sword

Internet is playing an increasingly important role in people's life. As a newborn information delivering system, Internet has made various information available at our finger's tip. For example, surfing the net, researchers can get a global look at the latest development in their professional fields. Besides, Internet serves as the most convenient means for communication. Internet is also a faithful aid in our daily life since people can do some shopping and get medical services online. So Internet is indeed one of the most interesting and important inventions man has ever made.

But just as a coin has two sides, Internet has its own drawbacks which should not be neglected. First, it costs an alarming amount of money to construct the system. Second, it is sometimes difficult for people to find the right information they are looking for since there is too much rubbish on the net. Finally, it is also difficult to prevent the net from the invasion of criminals.

But we should not give up eating for fear of choking. I think we should further develop the net and also exert supervision over it so that it can benefit both the country and the people.                        (197 words)

 

 (四) 比较对照型

1.                 Education:Examination-Orientation or Quality-Orientation

In China, it has been a long time that from primary school to college, students, teachers, even parents--all are struggling for high scores. This is because the current education system does not aim for students' quality, but only for developing their ability to perform well on the test. As a result, many students, even those with high scores, often do poorly and prove to be a moron when it comes to the practical application of the knowledge and theory they have learned.

Compared with the examination-oriented education, quality-oriented education focus more on students’ quality and ability. From my point of view, quality-oriented education should be adapted to the new education policy. Because it can cultivate students’ creativity. It can also reduce students’ load and return a more colorful life to students.

From what has been discussed above, I may safely arrive at a conclusion that quality -oriented education is more suitable. It is high time to abolish examination-oriented education and advocate quality-oriented education. (164 words )

 

2.                      Competition and Cooperation

In our times, cooperation and competition spread all over the world. Both of them speed up the wheel of economy and enrich the intelligence of mankind. It is impossible to accomplish a complicated program by only one person now. As we know, the more cooperation a company depends on, the more efficient it will become in business.

Furthermore, we can't avoid competition in our exchanges. From time to time, we compare ourselves with others, expecting to catch up with others. This is the spirit of competition, by which we pursue the higher goal. It is only by competition in the market that a company can raise its reputation. Were it not for competition, say, all of us would not enjoy what we have achieved.

But, competition cannot go without cooperation; cooperation may result in competition. Consider how we improve our standard of living if we live in an indifferent society where there is no cooperation. Cooperation is the warm wind, touching our hearts gently and making us happy inside. Competition is the tough storm, testing our character and training our skills. So I believe that these aspects of one matter may not benefit our life and work until they are associated with each other.                                           (202 words)

 

作文预测

1.投诉信

投诉信又叫抱怨信,其主要目的是表达写信人对某一情况的不满。

例:

Directions:

You live in a room in college which you share with another student. You find it very difficult to work there because you roommate always has friends visiting. He/she has parties in the room and sometimes borrows your things without asking you. Write a letter to the Accommodation Officer at the college:

1) asking for a new room next term,

2) stating that you would prefer a single room and

3) explaining your reasons.

You should write with no less than 100 words on Answer Sheet 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address.

范文:

Dear Sir or Madam,

    I am writing to inform you that I wish to move into a new room next term. I would prefer a single room, as I find the present sharing arrangement inconvenient.

The reason for my dissatisfaction is my roommate's inconsiderate behavior. His friends constantly visit him and he regularly holds noisy parties. In addition, he sometimes borrows my things without asking me. Under these circumstances, I find it difficult to concentrate on my studies, and I am falling behind on my assignments.

I am sure you will agree that the solution is for me to move into a room of my own, where I will be free from such distractions. I would be grateful if you could find a single room for me, preferably not in the same building but as near to the college campus as possible.

 

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

2倡导信

 

   1.目的和写法

   倡导信一般是为了解决某个普遍关注的问题而以某职能部门、权威人士或广大群众为对象的信函。通常有标题。其内容与本书前文所述的问题解决型考研英语作文题较为相似。

A Letter to Citizens of Beijing as to Improving Involvement in Preparation for the 2008 Olympic Games

 

 

 

 

Dear Countrymen:

I am writing the letter to call on all people in Beijing to perk up and do more work for the coming 2008 Olympic Games. As a common citizen here in the capital of our great motherland, I jumped over joy when news came saying we won the competition for hosting the great games, the first in our history.

But after a month-long excitement, I started to think about the question: What can I do for the huge project? I had been left with helplessness for all the past months, like many people did. But now I came up with some ideas that might attract you and equip us all with sufficient confidence.

Maybe I would be too old to be a volunteer in 2008, but I will start studying English, and two of three of other foreign languages if possible, to be able to communicate with friends from all corners of the world. We could have been making Beijing an international city in the proper sense of the word. Apart from that I will try to understand modern concepts about making a city, and a country, more beautiful, for example, environmental protection, community construction, city planning, and above all, the quality of being a citizen in the modern metropolis, and make positive efforts to put them into practice.

Please join me in the action and extend our excitement into a spirit that dares any possible difficulties! Thank you!

Best wishes to Beijing and our country,

Zhong Guan

(A common citizen of Beijing)

 

 

 

3. 介绍大学的生活

You will graduate from university in the summer of 2005 and have experienced ups and downs over the past four years. Write a letter to the freshmen to

  1)state how to adapt oneself to campus life, and
  2)stress the importance of English learning.
 You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

  A Letter of Advice

Dear Freshmen,

   I, the undersigned, am a senior in the Computer Science Department of Tsinghua University. I would like to say a few words to you, which I hope would be helpful to you.
   To begin with, the change of ideas is of most importance for freshmen to adapt themselves to campus life. During the middle school days, we usually depend upon our teachers at school and parents at home. However, the life and study on university campus features independence, which is essential to our psychological development. In my view, we had better always bear in mind the idea of independence. What’s more, English learning is a must. On one hand, without CET 4 certificate, we can not get our degree when we graduate from university. On the other hand, when we hunt for job, English level is a deciding factor. Therefore, I do hope that all of you will have a good understanding of the necessity of learning English well.

Good Luck to you!

                        Sincerely Yours
                                                 Li Ming

4.询问信

★例:

Directions:                                                                *

      As part of a student social survey project, you are organizing a group to visit a historical exhibition in a small town. Write a letter to the organizer of the exhibition:

      1) asking for information regarding the contents of the exhibition

      2) asking about the dates and times the exhibition is open and

      3) if there are any discounts available.

      You should write with no less than 100 words on Answer Sheet 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use "Li Ming" instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

 

★例:

Dear Sir,                          *

      I am organizing a group of students to pay a visit to the historical exhibition in your town. This visit will be part of our school's social survey project. I would be grateful if you could supply me with the following information.

      First of all, what are the dates between which the exhibition will be held, and what are the daily opening hours? Secondly, what is the size of the exhibition, what is its theme and what objects ate on display? Thirdly, are there any other activities being held in connection with the exhibition?

     I would also like to inquire if there is any discount available on entrance tickets for students. If so, how much is the discount and what is the minimum number of students necessary to qualify for it?

     I look forward to your reply.

 

Yours sincerely,

Li  Ming

 

附:常见话题写作范文

 

1.                The Development of the West Regions

    The large-scale development of western regions will prove to be of great significance in China. This state policy will provide a wider scope of development for central and eastern regions, whose economy is supposed to keep on the rise. The important strategy will be indispensable to China's overall economic growth. What is more, the long-term systematic project will be an effective approach to diminishing the imbalance of economic development in the east and the west so as to revitalize our nation.

There are several reasons why the land-locked western regions have lagged behind in their economic development. The unfavorable geographical positions there greatly limit their development, and many regions in the west remain comparatively underdeveloped. The gaps between the west and the east have been widened since China's reform, for Chinese opening up policies enabled the east to attract more foreign capital and make a fantastic spur in its development, If left unchanged, the underdevelopment in the west will greatly affect overall prosperity and even social stability.

Therefore, the western region development is a major concern of China at present. Its chief objective is to build West China into a land of economic prosperity, social progress, political stability and beautiful landscape. Its success depends on the joint efforts of the whole nation and of several generations. As a citizen, I firmly believe that there will be a bright future waiting for the west.            (233 words)

 

2.         China’s Access to WTO: Challenges and Opportunities

For China's entering WTO (World Trade Organization), people wondered what it will bring along. People's attitudes toward it are different. Some people take optimistic attitudes while others take pessimistic ones. Actually, the WTO entry will bring both advantages and disadvantages to China.

Some advantages of joining the WTO are as follows. First, the WTO entry will increase exports and attract more foreign investments. China can sell surplus products to other member countries and upgrade its traditional industries with the aid of foreign capital and technology. Then, after the WTO entry, taxes on goods will be greatly reduced. Chinese people will benefit from it; that is to say, they can buy cheap commodities with high quality. Finally, with the tough competition in the fields of telecommunication, banking and commerce, customers will enjoy better service.

The WTO entry will bring to China not only opportunities but challenges as well. As China gradually opens its market to the outside world; more and more foreign products, services and investments will enter the Chinese market. Therefore, domestic enterprises will meet with sharper competition and severe challenges. For example, industries such as automobile, banking and insurance will face a great pressure.

In my opinion, the WTO entry will bring about more good than bad to China. In the long term, the WTO entry will have a positive impact on China's economic system reform.   (227 words)

 

3.                          Studying Abroad

With the open-door policy, there has been a growing trend that more and more students choose to study abroad.

Some students think that studying abroad has some advantages. Firstly, they can learn advanced science and technology. Secondly, they can promote the cultural exchange between China and other countries. Finally, studying abroad provides them with a good opportunity to adapt to new environments.

Other students, on the other hand, see some disadvantages of studying abroad. First of all, if they have to finance themselves, they will need a considerable amount of money. Sometimes they have to wash dishes at restaurants to earn enough money to pay their tuition. Next, they may feel lonely living in an entirely different country. In addition, they may be looked down upon by the natives of that country. Moreover, some students do not want to come back after graduation and this will be a great loss to their motherland.

In my opinion, studying abroad should be encouraged. Now China is a developing country; and it needs a large number of qualified professionals. In the long run, China will become a prosperous, powerful country in the future, and more and more overseas students will come back to serve their motherland.   (205 words)

 

4.                    Competition and Cooperation

In our times, cooperation and competition spread all over the world. Both of them speed up the wheel of economy and enrich the intelligence of mankind. It is impossible to accomplish a complicated program by only one person now. As we know, the more cooperation a company depends on, the more efficient it will become in business.

Furthermore, we can't avoid competition in our exchanges. From time to time, we compare ourselves with others, expecting to catch up with others. This is the spirit of competition, by which we pursue the higher goal. It is only by competition in the market that a company can raise its reputation. Were it not for competition, say, all of us would not enjoy what we have achieved.

    But, competition cannot go without cooperation; cooperation may result in competition. Consider how we improve our standard of living if we live in an indifferent society where there is no cooperation. Cooperation is the warm wind, touching our hearts gently and making us happy inside. Competition is the tough storm, testing our character and training our skills. So I believe that these aspects of one matter may not benefit our life and work until they are associated with each other.                          (202 words)

 

5.             Developing Economy or Protecting the Environment

Nowadays, it is an urgent task to develop economy on a large scale. First, many people, especially those in rural areas, are living in poverty. Many children drop out of school and can’t afford even the compulsory education. Second, only by further balancing and developing our economy can we get rid of poverty and gain the overall prosperity.

In the mean time, environmental protection should be a top priority. There is plenty of evidence to show that sustainable development can be achieved by balancing economic growth with protection of the environment. It’s the rapid and advanced development of economy that leads to the present situation that most parts of the world are polluted. If our ecological environment is heavily polluted or ruined, we could not even survive on this planet, let alone develop our economy.

In my opinion, both economy and environmental protection are our urgent tasks now. Without economic development, we would remain backward. Moreover, we might be conquered or bullied by other powerful countries. And without environmental protection, we would lose our home. Therefore, the best solution is to develop environmental-protection-oriented industries and agriculture. Both the government and ordinary citizens should join hands to make this world a better place to live in, not only for ourselves, but also for future generations.  (214 words)

                                           

6.            Which Is More Important, Wealth or Health?

When it comes to the question: which is important, wealth or health, some people deem that wealth is more important than health. Others argue that opposite is true. There is probably some truth in both arguments. But in my opinion, health is priority for human beings. The following points can well support my statement.

First of all, with a good health, you will be happy with yourself and your family as well. A good health will enable you to enjoy your life. You can go and visit any place or do whatever you like without physical problems. With a good health, you won't give your family or your parents any trouble, and they don't have to spend much time worrying about you or looking after you.

What’s more, a good health will enable you to work effectively. If you can work well, you will be promoted and your salary will be raised. For example, one of my friends used to be rather poor but he had a good health. He worked very hard indeed in a company. Within five years, due to his achievements, he became a department manager and bought a house and a car. Now he is living a very happy life in a city. So to some extent, a good health means wealth.

From what has been discussed above, I may reasonably reach the conclusion that health is more important than wealth since health is the priority for human beings and a good health enables people to create enormous wealth.                      (253 words)

 

7.                   Which Is More Important: Famous University Or Specialty

 

When asked about which is more important; university or specialty, different candidates often offer different answers. An overwhelming majority of students would like to give first priority to  famous university, while other candidates usually regard specialty as their favorite instead of famous university.

 

Those who choose famous university as their priority believe that the famous university is of the following advantages. First of all, famous university will help them gain a more splendid future.

At least, it can make the students easy to find a satisfied and high-paying job, what’s more, it goes without saying that famous university has a long history with rich cultures. It enjoys a greater prestige both in China and in the world. It can provide students with many opportunities such as academic exchange with other foreign universities and so on. Even though, some candidates still regard specialty as their favorite. In their opinion, only specialty can stimulate their study interests and develop their special talents fully. Especially in market economy society, specialty sometimes appears more important than famous university.

 

From what has been discussed above, I think that there may be some truth in both choices. If I am allowed to make a decision, I would prefer famous university to specialty out of the following consideration. Famous university generally possesses first-class professors and sophisticate facilities with a large and beautiful campus. Not only can it enable us to study well but also help us enjoy the college life.   ( 243 )

 

Teachers need to be aware of the emotional, intellectual, and physical changes that young adults experience. And they also need to give serious  ____1___ to how they can be best ___2 ____such changes. Growing bodies need movement and ____3_____ , but not just in ways that emphasize competition.___ 4___ they are adjusting to their new bodies and a whole host of new intellectual and emotional challenges, teenagers are especially self-conscious and need the ___5___that comes from achieving success and knowing that their accomplishments are ___6___ by others. However, the typical teenage lifestyle is already filled with so much competition that it would be ___7___to plan activities in which there are more winners than losers, ___8___, publishing newsletters with many student-written book reviews,____9____student artwork, and sponsoring book discussion clubs. A variety of small clubs can provide ____10____opportunities for leadership, as well as for practice in successful___11___ dynamics. Making friends is extremely important to teenagers, and many shy students need the ___12____of some kind of organization with a supportive adult___13___ visible in the background.

In these activities, it is important to remember that the young teens have ___14___attention spans. A variety of activities should be organized ___15___ participants can remain active as long as they want and then go on to ___16___ else without feeling guity and without letting the other participants___ 17 ___. This does not mean that adults must accept irresponsibility.___18___ they can help students acquire a sense of commitment by ___19 ____for roles that are within their     ___20 ___and their attention spans and by having clearly stated rules.

    21. A. thought B.idea C. opinion D. advice

  22. A. strengthen B. accommodate C. stimulate D. enhance

  23. A. care B. nutrition C. exercise D. leisure

  24. A. If B. Although C. Whereas D. Because

  25. A. assistance B. guidance C. confidence D. tolerance

  26. A. claimed B. admired C. ignored D. surpassed

  27. A. improper B. risky C. fair D. wise

  28. A. in effect B. as a result C. for example D. in a sense

  29. A. displaying B. describing C. creating D. exchanging

  30. A. durable B. exessive C. surplus D. multiple

  31. A.group B. individual C. personnel D. corporation

  32. A. consent B. insurance C. admission D. security

  33. A. particularly B. barely C. definitely D. rarely
34. A. similiar B. long C. different D. short

  35. A. if only B. now that C. so that D. even if

  36. A. everything B. anything C. nothing D. something

  37. A. off B. down C. out D. alone

  38. A. On the contrary B. On the average C. On the whole D. On the other hand

  39. A. making B. standing C. planning D. taking

  40. A. capability B. responsibility C. proficiency D. efficiency

Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency (crimes committed by young people) focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence. Theories (21) ____ on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior (22) ____ they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through (23) ____ with others. Theories focusing on the role of society that children commit crimes in (24) ____ to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status (25) ____ as a rejection of middle-class values.

Most theories of juvenile delinquency have focused on children from disadvantaged families, (26) ____ the fact that children from wealthy homes also commit crimes. The latter may commit crimes (27) ____ lack of adequate parental control. All theories, however, are tentative and are (28) ____ to criticism.

Changes in the social structure may indirectly (29) ____ juvenile crime rates. For example, changes in the economy that (30) ____ to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment (31) ____ make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. The resulting discontent may in (32) ____ lead more youths into criminal behavior.

Families have also (33) ____ changes these years. More families consist of one parent households or two working parents; (34) ____, children are likely to have less supervision at home (35) ____ was common in the traditional family (36) ____. This lack of parental supervision is thought to be an influence on juvenile crime rates. Other (37) ____ causes of offensive acts include frustration or failure in school, the increased (38) ____ of drugs and alcohol, and the growing (39) ____ of child abuse and child neglect. All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act, (40) ____ a direct causal relationship has not yet been established.

21.[A] acting [B] relying [C] centering [D] cementing

22.[A] before [B] unless [C] until [D] because

23. [A] interactions [B] assimilation [C] cooperation [D] consultation

24. [A] return [B] reply [C] reference [D] response

25. [A] or [B] but rather [C] but [D] or else

26.[A] considering [B] ignoring [C] highlighting [D] discarding

27. [A] on [B] in [C] for [D] with

28. [A] immune [B] resistant [C] sensitive [D] subject

29. [A] affect [B] reduce [C] chock [D] reflect

30. [A] point [B] lead [C] come [D] amount

31. [A] in general [B] on average [C] by contrast [D] at length

32. [A] case [B] short [C] turn [D] essence

33. [A] survived [B] noticed [C] undertaken [D] experienced

34. [A] contrarily [B] consequently [C] similarly [D] simultaneously

35. [A] than [B] that [C] which [D] as
36. [A] system [B] structure [C] concept [D] heritage
37. [A] assessable [B] identifiable [C] negligible [D] incredible
38. [A] expense [B] restriction [C] allocation [D] availability
39. [A] incidence [B] awareness [C] exposure [D] popularity
40. [A] provided [B] since [C] although [D] supposing

 

The human nose is an underrated tool. Humans are often thought to be insensitive smellers compared with animals,        this is largely because,          animals, we stand upright. This means that our noses are         to perceiving those smells which float through the air,         the majority of smells which stick to surfaces. In fact      , we are extremely sensitive to smells,        we do not generally realize it. Our noses are capable of       human smells even when these are       to far below one part in one million.

Strangely, some people find that they can smell one type of flower but not

another,        others are sensitive to the smells of both flowers. T his may be because some people do not have the genes necessary to generate     10     smell receptors in the nose. These receptors are the cells  which sense smells and send 

    11     to the brain. However, it has  been found that even people insensitive to a certain smell      12      can suddenly become sensitive to it when    13        to it often enough.

The explanation for insensitivity to smell seems to be that brain finds it  14    to keep all smell receptors working all the time but can    15      new receptors if necessary. This may    16       exp lain why we are not usually sensitive to our own smells—we simply do not need  t o be. We are not     17    of the usual smell of our own house but we     18      new smells when we visit someone else's. The brain finds  it best to keep smell receptors     19     for unfamiliar and emergency signals   20     the smell of smoke, which might indicate the d anger of fire.

1. [A]although[B]as[C]but[D]while

2. [A]above[B]unlike[C]excluding[D]besides

3. [A]limited[B]committed[C]dedicated[D]

4. [A]catching[B]ignoring[C]missing[D]tracking

5. [A]anyway[B]though[C]instead[D]therefore

6. [A]even if[B]if only[C]only if[D]as if

7. [A]distinguishing[B]discovering

[C]determining[D]detecting

8. [A]diluted[B]dissolved[C]dispersed[D]diffused

9. [A]when[B]since[C]for[D]whereas

10. [A]unusual[B]particular[C]unique[D]typical

11. [A]signs[B]stimuli[C]messages[D]impulses

12. [A]at first[B]at all[C]at large[D]at times

13. [A]subjected[B]left[C]drawn[D]exposed

14. [A]ineffective[B]incompetent[C]inefficient[D]insufficient

15. [A]introduce[B]summon[C]trigger[D]create

16. [A]still[B]also[C]otherwise[D]nevertheless

17. [A]sure[B]sick[C]aware[D]tired

18. [A]tolerate[B]repel[C]neglect[D]notice

19. [A]available[B]reliable[C]identifiable[D]suitable

20. [A]similar to[B]such as[C]along with[D]aside from

听力板块

Exercise 1

A.     She can tell Joan when she sees her at noon

B.      She should tell Joan’s brother about the reception.

C.      She must call on Joan after the reception

D.     She may see Joan’s brother at lunch

2. 音变

Exercise 1

A.     It is no longer available.

B.      It has been reprinted four times

C.      The stores does not have it now, but will have it soon

D.     The information in the book is out of date.

高频词汇的不同语境的含义

1.     to have(many) irons in the fire

2.     to talk over (one‘s) head(s)

3.     to keep (one‘s) fingers crossed

4   stretch (one‘s) legs
5    let off steam
7.  paint
someone or oneselfinto a corner

8   to ask (someone) for (one‘s) hand
9   to move onward and upward
10   to call a spade a spade
11   to play cat and mouse

超越惯性思维

.Exercise  1.

. A. take a train    B. take a taxi   C. go shopping    D. go for a trip

Exercise 2

A.     a job opportunity

B.      a position as general manger.

C.      A big travel agency.

D.     An inexperienced salesman.

Exercise 3

A.the woman insists on going out.

B. The woman doesn’t like watching TV

C. The man promised her a gift on her birthday

D.The man is too tired to go out.

Exercise 4

A. The woman is wrong about when his birthday is

B. He expects to hear from his brother

C. He bought a present for the woman’s birthday

D .His brother is coming to visit him

比较结构题

Exercise 1

A.     Tony couldn’t continue the experiment.

B.      Tony finished the experiment last night.

C.      Tony thought the experiment was well done.

D.     Tony has expected the experiment to be easier.

Exercise 2

A.     It is awfully dull.

B.      It is really exciting.

C.      It is very exhausting.

D.     It is quite challenging.

否定关系题

Exercise 1

A.     The man thought the essay was easy.

B.      They both had a hard time writing the essay

C.      The woman thought the essay was easy.

D.     Neither of them as finished the assignment.

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精讲班
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考试英语一般复习方案
冲刺班
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考试英语一般复习方案
考题预测班
16讲
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考试英语一般复习方案
真题班

学费200元,作为保过班独享课程不单独出售,不提供试听

基础班
24讲
150元
考试英语一般复习方案

王文轲

肖克

王轶群

精讲班
50讲
200元
考试英语一般复习方案
冲刺班
10讲
150元
考试英语一般复习方案
考题预测班
16讲
150元
考试英语一般复习方案
真题班

学费200元,作为保过班独享课程不单独出售,不提供试听